In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate. We [Abd al-Aziz’s forces] will not harass him [Theodmir], nor remove him from power. His followers will not be killed or taken prisoner, nor will they be separated from their women and children. They will not be coercedin matters of religion, their churches will not be burned, nor will sacredobjects be taken from the realm, as long as he remains sincere and fulfills these conditions that we have set for him: He will not give shelter to fugitives, nor to our enemies, nor encourage any protected personto fear us, nor concealnews of our enemies. He and [each of] his men shall [also] pay one dinarevery year, together with four measures of wheat, four measures of barley, four liquid measures of concentrated fruit juice, four liquid measures of vinegar, four of honey, and four of olive oil. Slaves must each pay half of this amount.Source:The Treaty of Tudmir, 713 CE. Vocabulary coerced: forced sacred: religious fugitives: people running from the law dinar: Muslim coins made of gold or silver protected person: person under the rule of the empire conceal: hide
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document C: Fred Donner Fred Donner is a historian at the University of Chicago who specializes in early Islam and early Islamic expansion. Below is an excerpt from his book where he challenges some of the common knowledge about early Islamic conquests.