Snjólfur also describes strategy implementation as “work specifically done for the purpose of implementing the organizational strategy” (Snjólfur Ólafsson, 2005, p. 48). The article “Why CEOs Fail,” published in 1999 and written by Ram Charan and Geoffrey Colvin, explains that strategies fail because of bad execution, not because of a bad strategy. The article uses the Kodak case as an example which is a good example where the strategy was available but never executed which led the company to be under in competition (Charan & Colvin, 1999). Speculand (2009) explained that the article had a significant impact on the field of implementation and since then leaders, have begun focusing on the topic. Several known scholars have presented their take on strategy implementation, those who will be mentioned specially in the thesis are professor Lawrence G. Hrebiniak, Robin Speculand who was mentioned previously, and professor John Paul Kotter. Kotter formed the 8-step process, which will be described in the following chapter.
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5 2.2The 8-Step Kotter Process John Paul Kotter graduated from MIT and Harvard Business School. In 1980 he was given tenure and a full professorship at Harvard where he later retired in 2001. Kotter has published 20 books and is widely known as the foremost authority of leadership and change (Kotter, 2008). Kotter wrote the article “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail” for Harvard Business Review in 1995. The article is based on analysis of dozens of organizations that had the same goal in almost every case to make changes to cope with challenges in the environment (Kotter, 1995). The article outlined eight fundamental pitfalls when implementing change in the organization. Following the article Kotter published his bestseller, Leading Change, in 1996. The book outlines the 8-step process for implementing change. The 8-step process summarizes steps that are crucial for successful change implementation. Each step is associated with the fundamental pitfalls outlined in the article. The eight steps described in the first edition of the book are as follows: 1.Establishing a sense of urgency 2.Creating a guiding coalition 3.Developing a vision and strategy 4.Communicating the change vision 5.Empowering a broad base action 6.Generating short-term wins 7.Consolidating gains and producing more change 8.Anchoring new approaches in the culture Kotter has since published several editions of Leading Changeand most recently the book Accelerate. Accelerate, published in 2014, expands the scope of the 8-step process where Kotter had switched his focus from research to impact (‘The 8-Step Process for Leading Change - Kotter’, n.d.). Descriptions of the steps have been modified. They are as follows: 1.Create a sense of urgency 2.Build a guiding coalition 3.Form a strategic vision and initiatives 4.Enlist a volunteer army 5.Enable action by removing barriers 6.Generate short-term wins 7.Sustain acceleration 8.Institute change