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Crime pattern theories paul patricia brantingham

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CRIME PATTERN THEORIES(Paul & Patricia Brantingham)Potential targets and victims have activity spaces that intersect the activity spaces of potentialoffenders.
REACTIONS TO CHOICE THEORIES1.Situational crime prevention-crime prevention method that relies on the reduction ofopportunity to commit a criminal act by (1) making them more difficult to perform; (2) reducing theirreward; (3) increasing their risk.2.Target Hardening Techniques-crime prevention techniques that makes it more difficult for awould-be delinquent to carry out the illegal act.Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED).This refers to a set of practices designed to make potential criminal targets less attractive. The belief thatcrime is a rational act is used to make a potential target less attractive to a criminal, and thus not a“rational” target.2.7: Lecture Notes on the Early PositivismEarly PositivismThe earliest scientific studies examining human behavior seem quaint and primitive. One of theoldest scientific approaches in criminology theory emphasizes physical and biological abnormality as thedistinguishing mark of the criminal.In this approach criminals are viewed as somehow different, abnormal, defective, and therefore inferiorbiologically. This biological inferiority is thought to produce certain physical characteristics that make theappearance of criminals different from that of non - criminals. The real explanation of criminal behavior inthis view, is biological defectiveness and inferiority physical and other characteristics are only symptomsof that inferiority.2.8: Lecture Notes on PhysiognomyPhysiognomy –refers to the study regarding structure and characteristics of human face. The word isderived from the ancient Greek word for nature,physis,and the one for judge,gnomon.Giambattistadella Porta, also calledGiovanni BattistaDella Porta (1535-1615)oFounder of physiognomy.
oHe emphasizes that abnormal elements of human face are principal causes of crimethough he does refuse to accept the other biological factors of crime.Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801)oHe showed a close relationship between human face & conduct.oHe studied the facial features of criminals and found that the shape of the ears, nose, andeyes, and the distances between them were associated with anti-social behavior.In course of time the significance of physiognomy diminishes & it contribute to the emergence of a betterorganized & logically more impressive branch of criminological study, namely phrenology.2.9: Lecture Notes on PhrenologyPhrenology-the study of human skull in where attempt is made to find out the close relation betweenhuman skull features & crimes.Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)oFounder of phrenology & plays significant role to its development.

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Cesare Lombroso, America, The Unconscious,

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