Syntax – phrases and sentences in a manner that reflects a hierarchical structure • ordering of grammatical sequences within a phrase Pragmatics – how contexts affects the meaning • Example: after several rainy days someone might say, “Nice weather we are having” the listener may understand the meaning opposite of what was said. Three Stages of Language – 1. one word 2. two word 3. telegraphic speech a. combination of 2 or 3 words into simple sentences, generally between 18-24 months Semantics – study of the meaning of words and sentences Strategy – Generating solutions that can be tested • Main advantage is to control a person in the task or situation at hand Algorithm – problem solving strategy that guarantees a correct solution • Systematically exploring possible solutions until the correct one is found Heuristic Strategy – problem solving hypothesis to be tested in a systematic way, not guaranteed an acceptable solution • A “heuristic” is a “rule of thumb” Divergent Thinking – many ideas or solutions from one idea. BRAINSTORMING Convergent Thinking – focusing on one solution (reducing many ideas into one solution) Mental Set – to perceive something in a predetermined set way Functional Fixedness (Phenomenon of) – inability to discover new functions because of experiences (similar to mental set) Intelligence – capacity to understand the world and cope with challenges • Ability to learn new concepts, generate new ideas • Researchers do not agree on definition of intelligence G-Score – measure of overall intellectual ability – most commonly referred to as IQ X & Y Chromosomes – chromosomes that determine sex • Females receive a “ X chromosome” from each parent XX • Males receive one “X chromosome and one Y chromosome” XY Masters' and Johnson's stages of sexual response • excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
• Excitement is the building up of arousal, plateau is an increase in excitement, orgasm is muscular contractions, and resolution is a return to a normal non-aroused state. Sex Glands • Males – Testes (sex gland) o Male hormone produced by Testes in ANDROGEN o Most important male sex hormone is TESTOSTERONE • Females – Ovaries (sex gland) o Female hormone produced by ovaries is ESTROGEN o Most important female sex hormone is PROGESTERONE o Menopause – decreased estrogen Puberty – physical state one becomes capable of sexually reproduction Arousal – level of excitement and will represent motivational state • Inverted U-shaped function - lower and high level arousal leads to poorest performance Libido – energy that activates the life (sexual instincts) Adrenal Glands • Located in the kidneys • Part of the Autonomic nervous system (ANS) • Involved in emotional reactions Adrenalin – also known as Epinephrine - Hormone • Hormone produced by the adrenal glands • Involve emotional activity, mostly affecting heart activity Norepinephrine – Hormone • Secreted by the adrenal glands directly into the bloodstream • Emotional arousal Drive – a response to a need or desire for something
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- Winter '12