4 secularisation had started even earlier at the

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4 Secularisation had started even earlier at the higher levels of education with the founding of the School of Medicine (1827) 5 and the Military Academy (1834, 1846). 6 A new, secular law school began to function in 1880. All these developments were the consequence of the characteristic attitude of the Ottoman secular bureaucracy in matters which con- cerned the restoration of the power of the state: if Western institutions could rejuvenate the state, they would be adopted. It would be difficult otherwise to explain the ease with which Ottomans slid into westernising reform. Again, it is in this light that we under- stand how, already in the 1880s, the Ottoman statesman Saffet Pa�a (1814-83) could urge Turkey to adopt 'the civilisation of Europe in its entirety, in short, to prove itself a civilised state'. 7 This statement was made privately, but Saffet Pap also put himself on record publicly with similarly strong statements on the subject 8 and his statement is a fair summary of the thoughts of many of his col- leagues. The distance travelled by Saffet Pap in relation to his educational background should be noted since he had received a medrese education. But the reason for his eagerness to model the empire on Europe becomes clear when we isolate the formative influence of his youth; he acquired his values and world-view when, as a very young man, he was apprenticed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A more colourful picture of the way in which Ottoman bureau- crats of the Tanzimat could step out of what they considered to be the 'backwardness' of some Islamic practices, may be found in a
198 $erif Mardin number of reports about Ahmad Vefik Pa�a, an outstanding states- man of the era. Among his achievements Vefik Pa�a could count the translation of Moliere into Turkish. At one time he was the governor of Bursa province, the capital of which, the town of Bursa, was deeply imbued with religious traditions; undeterred, Vefik Pa�a established a theatre in the town for the production of his transla- tions of Moliere and demanded that his employees buy season tic- kets. The local recorder of the Descendants of the Prophet, the Nakib ul E�raf Asim Bey, claimed that he could not attend such lighthearted entertainment because of his exalted status as an Isl mic official:9 Vefik Pa�a thereupon had As1m Bey's stables walled in by the municipality. On another occasion, during a tour of inspection, hearing that the lodge of a mystic order (tekke) was used as a refuge for brigands, he had the building t orn down on the spot. During his renovation of Bursa he found that to implement his plans he had to demolish the tomb of a saint known as the 'walking saint'. Vefik Pa�a went to the tomb, called three times 'O Saint, walk away!' and then had the sanctuary demolished, remarking 'He must have walked away by now' .

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