Revealed close links between the police and politicians as high as the Prime Minister Testimony was given that the politicians requested police cooperation in preventing anti-apartheid demonstrators from tarnishing the international image of South Africa o One of the outcomes of that request was the violent death of Biko in police custody o Ultimately, the South African security forces were revealed to do the government’s bidding Black members of the forces never amounted to more than token representation Bantustans and Independent Black States - White South Africans have repeatedly attempted to claim the best lands the country had whilst driving away the indigenous Africans from their land, with this having occurred well before apartheid - Bantustans were poor lands for the black populus to reside in o Overcrowded, impoverished and relied on the South African government for economic aid as were not allowed to make their own policies o From 1961 to 1994, more than 3.5 million people were forcibly removed from their homes and deposited in the Bantustans → poverty 17
- All Black Africans were prescribed to one of ten Bantustans as their homeland o Ultimately, Bantustans enforced apartheid and pursue the notion of separate development , that different cultural groups should live separately - Bantu Authority Act of 1951 o Established black homelands with regional authorities in an attempt to create greater self-government - Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959 o Separated black people into different ethnic groups - The government wanted to use Bantustans as a means by which black South Africans would be stripped of their South African citizenship and thus ensure a white majority population by having all Bantustans eventually achieving independence from South Africa - The government edged closer to their goal of eliminating black South African citizenship through the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act 1970, which declared that all black South Africans were citizens of “homelands” rather than South Africa itself o However, the homelands remained financially dependent on South Africa and did not have the right to make their own policies. - Although the white government tried to legally separate Bantustans from South Africa, the rest of the world would not recognize this. The Minister for Native Affairs, Hendrick Verwoerd was determined to push ‘separate development’ as a way to ‘retribalise’ Africans. - The government hoped that black people in Bantustans would form a strong sense of community, that would replace broader African nationalism, therefore decreasing opposition by anti-apartheid groups such as the PAC and the ANC o The Bantustans were set up to legitimise the apartheid regime and to deprive the black South Africans of their citizenship. The fragmentation of the non- white groups reduced opportunities to challenge white power (ie. by forming nationalist organisations).
- Spring '19
- Mr Ryan
- South African Native National Congress