Anomie theory for firms that are unable to meet

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Anomie Theory For firms that are unable to meet specific goals, crime is one option to meet them Cloward and Ohlin (1960) posit that opportunities for crime are also unevenly distributed Not all firms have the same opportunities for crime and not the same crimes are available to all firms Braithwaite (1992) points out that powerful firms are able to create opportunities where they may not otherwise exist
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Market Structure Evidence suggests that illegal behavior may spread from one firm to another Mechanisms of macro-level differential association have not been fully explored One firm may gain a competitive advantage over others through illegal means Strong pressure is then placed on other firms to act similarly in order to survive
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“Culture of Competition” Social-psychological theories may not be possible for corporations However, all organizational members share at least one similar value that they seek for themselves and their organization Society values the accumulation of surplus wealth, particularly capitalist society Crime is one method to satisfy greed or eliminate the unpredictability of a free  wealth
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Deterrence Stemming from Regulation Firms in highly regulated markets are more likely to be involved in criminal behavior when enforcement of regulation is lax High regulation often equates to more opportunities for law violation Lack of enforcement means low deterrence It’s often argued that regulation interferes with the free market If the market dictates, regulations will be violated if necessary, especially if it is known they will not be enforced
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Putting it all Together Corporate crime may be explained by the organizational decision making process and how internal and external factors influence that process Several factors influence the process including Market structure, profitability, desire for profit, goal attainment, capitalist culture, and limited regulation Some influences have been formalized in theories including the two we discussed today
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The Framework Crime occurs when motive meets opportunity Crime is made through decision The decision making process is influenced by factors at differing levels of aggregation From the least abstract to the most Individual personal characteristics Group factors and the decision making process Corporate/organization culture Organizational goals Competition and market structure/forces Regulatory environment
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