Both There are three types of cones that respond to different wavelengths Early

Both there are three types of cones that respond to

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- Both - There are three types of cones that respond to different wavelengths Early processing - There are cells in the retina (ganglion), thalamus, and visual cortex, that respond in opposite ways to complementary colors Late processing Perception - Occurs in our brain - Occurs when information from the sensory organs are interpreted through a set of mental operations that organizes sensory impulses into meaningful patterns Feature Detectors - Neurons in the visual cortex that respond selectively to particular kinds of stimuli - For example: Lines of different orientations Lines moving in particular directions - Note: some cells in the temporal cortex respond just to faces Feature Analysis - Assembling the basic elemental features of visual inputs into more complex forms - Considered to be a form of bottom-up processing (from the parts to the whole) Feature Analysis is not the Whole Story - We also use higher cognitive processes to interpret what we see Ex. The ca tt is on the ma tt
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- These are called top-down processes (from the whole to the parts) Gestalt Psychology - The whole is greater than the sum of the parts - We perceive objects by paying attention to the way elements in the world are organized in relation to one another Subjective (Illusory) Contours - Perceiving contours (edges) where none actually exist - Shows how perception is about more than just sensing visual stimuli Closure - We tend to see complete figures even when part of the information is missing Cues for Figure vs. Ground - Edges; detected by sudden changes in brightness, color, or texture - Continuous boundaries suggest figures - Camouflage: Nature’s way of taking advantage of the difficulty of detecting objects when the figure cannot be distinguished from the ground Reversible Images - Even where there are continuous boundaries and clear images, we can still run into problems if there is more than one possible interpretation of the picture Similarity - Things which share visual characteristics such as shapes, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together Proximity - Things which are within close proximity will be seen as belonging together Common Movement (Common Fate) - Objects that are moving together in the same direction at the same speed are seen as part of the same object (ex. Birds flocking) Depth Perception - Binocular cues Retinal disparity Convergence - Monocular cues Motion parallax Pictorial cues - Retinal (Binocular) Disparity Objects project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas
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The closer the object, the greater the disparity between the two eyes Convergence - Inward turning of the eyes as we focus on closer objects Motion Parallax - Closer objects appear to move faster than farther objects Pictorial Cues - Cues about distance that can be given in a flat picture: Linear perspective Interposition Texture gradient Height in horizontal plane Relative size Clarity (atmospheric haze) Light and shadow
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