Women and men focus on different thing women base

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- Women and men focus on different thing. Women base mate selection off of protection and their ability to gain resources. Whereas men base mate selection more off of attraction - Sexual selection and smell: women respond better to the smell of a mate with a different immune system to them. - Pheromones are the reason why women’s periods sync up. Cognitive Theories - Cognitive theories emphasize the importance of thought processes and how they influence behaviour. - Thoughts are subject to many kinds of distortions and false assumptions, which can result in all kinds of psychological distress. - Cognitive theories may explain a number of sexual problems and patterns of sexual behaviours. Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura (1925--) - This theory is based on the notion that learning occurs through modelling observed behaviours - 3 Key Stages: Imitation, Identification, Self-Efficacy (imitation starts off with parents. Young kids pretending to play house) In order to be something we have to see it and then play out that part. - Sex is a primary reinforcer and a behaviour that can be shaped by rewards and punishments - Sex therapy which uses operant conditioning focuses on behavioural rehearsals to establish desirable outcomes. - Successful change reinforces further efforts and more success. Social Exchange Theory - What makes people stay in relationships? Are you getting out what you put in - Social exchange theory describes how people try to maximize rewards and minimize costs.
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- There are four components to this theory o Balance of cost and rewards o Equity/Equality o Comparison level o Comparison level for alternatives Sociological Theories - Highlights the importance of social institutions such as religion and family - Institutions determine how sexuality is defined and expressed within a given society - Sex is linked to the societal structures of power, kinship and ideology. Feminist Theory - Inequities between males and females are reflected in male—female relationships - “Typical” sexual behaviour, such as the focus on vaginal intercourse and male pleasure, is an agenda reflecting male privilege. - Women in a position of economic dependence. - Cultural beliefs make division of labour appear “natural”, casting women as weak, emotional and submissive. Whereas men were seen as strong, rational, aggressive. - Feminist argue that women do societies unpaid work. Social Script Theory - Indicates that social interactions are made easy and predictable because we follow culturally predefined patterns of behaviour. - How things are socially supposed to be. Order of sexual acts (having a conversation -> texting -> sex) Chapter 3 - Sex Research Why do we care? - facts” or “truths” have enormous implications - Social, economic and political o Large % argues for normality o Small % argues for deviance - Implicit assumption that single truth exists - Answers may involve more than one truth o E.g. women tend not to include non-consensual partners, while men do Cosmopolitan: “Truths” - Truth: you’ll regret that “just wanted to make sure you got my last message” follow-up to an e-mail, text, or voicemail
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