上升 進口量 Q d Q s Q d Q s 減少 國內生產量 Q s Q s 增加 消費者剩餘 ABP f AFP 1 減少 生產者剩餘 P f EC P

上升 進口量 q d q s q d q s 減少

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上升 進口量 Q 0 d Q 0 s Q , d Q , s 減少 國內生產量 Q 0 s Q , s 增加 消費者剩餘 ABP f AFP 1 減少 生產者剩餘 P f EC P 1 GC +□ GFIH 增加 社會福利損失 GHE +△ FBI
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經濟學實習課 講義編制:莊惠羽 3 3. 比較進口關稅和進口配額 (1) 進口配額是對進口數量設定一個上限 ( 並不存在政府稅收 ) ,這會會使進口品 (M) 的價格上升,不 一定能改善貿易逆差 ( X M 0) 。進口關稅則是經由課稅而提高進口品的價格來限制進口,其中 關稅對政府收入有助益。 (2) 相同點:關稅和配額都會提高國內的價格,使得國內 ( 廠商 ) 產品的生產增加,降低進口。實施 的國家出現社會福利無謂損失 (DWL) (3) 受益者:因為關稅或配額而獲得貿易利益者包括,國內的生產者 ( 國內價格提高了,可以多生產 ) 政府 ( 經由關稅或標售配額收入 ) 、外國廠商 ( 因為相對國外東西變便宜了 ) 等。 (4) 受害者:因關稅與配額後國內價格上升,所以國內消費者必須支付的價格增加、國內支付關稅 的生產者等。 Part3 出口補貼 (1) 圖示 (2) 出口補貼分析 出口補貼前 出口補貼後 變化 國內價格 P P 2 上升 出口量 BC AG EF IK 增加 國內生產量 0G 0K 增加 消費者剩餘 P BJ P 2 EJ 減少 生產者剩餘 P CH P 2 FH 增加 政府出口補貼 EFMN 增加 社會福利損失 ENB +△ CFM Part4 保護貿易理論–幼稚工業論 (Argument on infant industry) (1) List 提出,所謂幼稚工業論是指發展初期的工業,他認為開發中國家生產力較低、技術落後, 因此建立一國的工業基礎,初期應實施保護貿易的措施。 (2)( 補充 )
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