Sensation and Perception notes

O cochlea coiled snail shaped tube that contain

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o Cochlea – coiled, snail shaped tube that contain basilar membrane (sheet of tissue) o Organ of Corti rests on the basilar membrane Has thousands of tiny hair cells that are actual sound receptors Sound waves cause waves in liquid, which bend hairs, causing release of neurotransmitters Sound localization – ability to notice location of sound due to timing difference in sound wave reception in ear Two types of hearing loss: o Conduction deafness – problems involving the mechanical system that transmits sound waves to the cochlea o Nerve deafness – caused by damaged receptors within the inner ear, or damage to the auditory nerve Taste and Smell: The Chemical Senses Taste (gustation) and smell (olfaction) are sensitive to chemical molecules rather than energy Taste buds – chemical receptors along edges and back surface of tongue o Consists of bitter, sour, salty, and sweet receptors Receptors of smell are long cells that project through the lining of the upper part of the nasal cavity and the mucous membrane Pheromes – chemical signals found in natural body scents o Menstrual synchrony – tendency of women who live together to have similar menstrual cycles The Skin and Body Senses Receptors in skin and internal organs sense pressure, pain, warmth, and cold o Mixtures form other sensations, such as itch Kinesthesis – provides us with feedback about our muscles’ and joints’ positions and movements o Cooperates with the vestibular sense (sense of body orientation or equilibrium) Perception: The Creation of Experience Two different types of processing functions: o Bottom up processing – takes individual elements of the stimulus and combines into a unified perception o Top down processing – sensory information is interpreted in the light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas, and expectations Accounts for psychological influences on perception Role of Attention in Perception Attention involves processes of (1) focusing on certain stimuli, and (2) filtering out other incoming information o Studied through technique called shadowing Participants hear two messages simultaneously through earphones, and must repeat one of the messages word for word Most can complete this, but cannot repeat second message Attention strongly influenced by nature and personal factors o Internal factors (motives and interests) influence which stimuli are noticed Perceptions Have Organization and Structure Synthesia – stimuli in one sensory modality give rise to perceptions in other modalities Gestalt theorists believe strongly in top-down processing o Wholes perceived are often more than the sum of their parts o Figure ground relations – perceptual organization in which a focal stimulus is perceived as a figure against a background of other stimuli
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o Gestalt laws of perceptual organization – four ways in which people group and interpret stimuli
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  • Spring '13
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  • Psychology, Color blindness

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