ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Enrichment expands a position vertically with

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Unformatted text preview: enrichment, expands a position vertically with responsibility and depth, job enlargement involves simply adding more work. For example, giving a dishwasher a broader range of things to wash is job enlargement. Another term for this is horizontal loading. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, absence, and turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders. Research indicates that low to moderate levels of stress stimulate the body and increase its ability to react. People then often perform their tasks better, more intensely, or more rapidly. Too much stress, though, often places unattainable demands or constraints on a person, which results in lower performance. In addition, moderate levels of stress can have a negative influence on performance over the long term as the continued intensity of the stress wears the individual down and saps his or her energy resources. An employee can take personal responsibility for reducing his or her stress level. Many people manage their time poorly. So an understanding and utilization of basic time management principles can help individuals better cope with tensions created by job demands. A few of the well-known time management principles can are (1) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished; (2) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency; and (3) scheduling activities according to the priorities set. Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback. The objective of these techniques is to reach a state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed, somewhat detached from the immediate environment, and detached from body sensations. 15 or 20 minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness. Several of the factors that cause stress are controlled by management. As such they can be modified or changed by management. Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress. Redesigning jobs can give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen the dependence on others. However, not all employees want enriched jobs. The right job redesign, then, for employees with a low need for growth might be less responsibility and increased specialization. If individuals prefer structure and routine, reducing skill variety should also reduce uncertainties and stress levels Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces stress and uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role conflict. Given the importance that perceptions play in moderating the stress-response relationship, management can also use effective communications as a means to shape employee perceptions. It’s important to remember that what employees categorize as demands, threats, or opportunities are merely an interpretation, and that interpretation can be affected by the symbols and actions communicated by management.interpretation can be affected by the symbols and actions communicated by management....
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