Ans suggested answer a defense mechanisms are

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ANS: Suggested answer: A. Defense mechanisms are unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress. According to contemporary researchers, defense mechanisms protect self-esteem. B. See Table 12.2 for definitions and examples of each defense mechanism. DIF: Difficult OBJ: 12.2d MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 4, Communication 11. a. Describe the research findings on twin and adoption studies looking at personality. b. What do these findings tell us about how genetics influence personality? ANS: Suggested answer:
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A. Research with identical twins provides insight into the role of genetics in personality. Numerous studies have shown that identical twins are more similar than non-identical twins in personality traits described by the five-factor theory. Twins raised apart are often as similar as, or even more similar than, twins raised together. Identical twins become more alike as they grow older. Siblings and fraternal twins do not become more alike. Two children who are not biologically related but raised as siblings in the same household tend to be no more alike in personality than any two strangers randomly pulled off the street. Also, the personalities of adopted children bear no significant relationship to those of their adoptive parents. B. This evidence suggests that parenting style has much less impact than has long been assumed and that similarities in personality between biological siblings and between children and their biological parents seem to have some genetic component. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 12.3b MSC: Understanding NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication 12. Little Elijah is full of energy and never sits still. He loves playing with his friends and going on adventures. Luckily, he rarely gets frightened and never cries when he is exploring with friends. a. Describe the three aspects of temperament. b. Decide whether Elijah is high or low on each aspect of temperament. c. What are some long-term implications of temperament? ANS: Suggested answer: A. The three aspects of temperament are (1) activity level: the overall amount of energy and behavior we exhibit; (2) emotionality: the intensity of emotional reactions; and (3) sociability: the general tendency to affiliate with others. B. Elijah would be considered high in activity level, low on emotionality, and high on sociability. C. Early temperament appears to influence behavior and personality significantly throughout a person’s development. Studies show that those who were classified as well adjusted at 3 years old were less likely at age 21 to abuse alcohol or show antisocial disorders than children whose temperaments were classified as undercontrolled at age 3. Additionally, inhibited children were much more likely, as adults, to be anxious, become depressed, be unemployed, have less social support, and attempt suicide. Research has also shown that children as young as 6
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