Be designed in such a way that it can be easily

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be designed in such a way that it can be easily opened and re-closed exclusively by the purchaser (Entrepreneur N.D.). For fi lling these requirements, synthetic pack- aging materials are often used for the packaging of textile products that are not eco-friendly (Szaky 2014 ). A polybag is a common form of textile product pack- aging made from polyethylene (PET) that is hard to be recycled or is not biodegradable. Due to the textile industry s standards for individual product wrapping, in the USA, 3.8 million pounds of PET wastes is created and only 12 % of these wastes are recycled every year (Szaky 2014 ). Hence, packaging must be innovated, so it is not land fi lled after a single use, or should be biodegradable or recyclable, so negative environmental impacts of packaging can be reduced. 4.2.2 Eco-friendly Alternatives to Traditional Manufacturing Processes Based on the use of innovative technologies, there are eco-friendly alternatives that are being used by textile companies to resolve environmental issues created by 34 K.E. Lee
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traditional manufacturing processes. Among these innovative technologies, envi- ronmentally sustainable alternatives include those for bleaching (e.g., air dyeing, less water wet fi nishing, laser bleaching and washing, and ozone bleaching and fi nishing), printing (e.g., digital printing technology), mercerization (e.g., electro- chemical cell mercerization), and assembly (e.g., zero-waste garment design, seamless knitting technology, and 3D-integrated design technology). Air dyeing Air dyeing technology (ADT) is a dyeing method using air rather than water (Kant 2012 ). ADT allows textile companies to still produce aesthetically appealing colors of garments without causing destruction to the environment. ADT creates approximately 84 % fewer greenhouse gas emission levels and consumes 87 % less energy, and with a single fabric piece, at one time, its different fabric sides can be dyed in different colors, so unique designs can be created (Kant 2012 ). ADT has been used to dye various fashion products, such as swimsuits and rPET (recycled PET), and by fashion designers in major design houses in New York (Kant 2012 ). Less water wet fi nishing Levi s is one of the world s leaders in promoting wet- fi nishing methods that con- sume less water. Since 2011, the denim giant has produced the Water<Less jeans, an innovative technique to create denim fi nishing effects using much less water than that required by traditional wet dyeing and fi nishing processes (Elks 2014 ; Levistrauss N.D.). To create its unique denim appearance, these traditional pro- cesses require three to ten spins of washing on average. Water<Less technology, however, combines the multiple wash cycles into a single process (Elks 2014 ). In addition to this, the company has integrated ozone processing to create the washed-down effects to the garments (Elks 2014 ). As a result, each fi nishing process in Levi s Water<Less jean s method reduces water consumption by approximately 96 %, and since 2011, the cumulated water saving is over 770 million liters, which corresponds to the amount of drinking water for 811,000 people (Levistrauss N.D.).
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