402 403 43 2 444 561 physiological responses to toxic

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40.2, 40.3 43. 2- 44.4 56.1 - Physiological responses to toxic substances - Dehydration - Immunological responses to pathogens, toxins and allergens - Invasive and/or eruptive species - Human impact - Natural disasters 2.d.4 Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis. 43.1 – 43.4 54.2 - Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms - Vertebrate immune systems have specific response mechanisms - Plants have a variety of defense mechanisms 2.e.1 timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. 18.2 – 18.4 25.5 - Morphogenesis of fingers and toes - Eukaryotic gene control mechanisms - HOX genes 2.e.2 Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. 24.1 11.1 - Release and reaction of pheromones - Visual displays in the reproductive cycle - Quorum sensing in bacteria 2.e.3 Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection. 51.1, 51.2, 54.1 - Hibernation, estivation, migration and courtship behaviors - Niche and resource portioning
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Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes. Essential knowledge Chapters/section s Illustrative examples covered 3.a.1 DNA and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 17.3 16.1, 16.2 17.1 – 17.4 19.2 20.1, 20.2 - Addition of a poly-A tail - Addition of a GTP cap - Excision of introns - Enzymatic reactions - Transport by proteins - Synthesis and degradation - Electrophoresis - Plasmid-based transformations - Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA - PCR - Genetically modified foods - Transgenic animals, cloned animals - Pharmaceuticals such as Humulin 3.a.2 In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization. 12.1 – 12.3 13.1 – 13.3 - Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) - Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) - Cancer results from disruptions in cell cycle control - Meiosis and sexual life cycles 3.a.3 The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring. 14.1 – 14.4 15.1 – 15.4 20.4 - Sickle cell anemia - Tay-Sachs disease - Huntington’s disease - X-linked traits - Klinefelter’s syndrome - Trisomy 21/Down syndrome - Civic issues such as ownership of genetic information, privacy, historical contexts etc. 3.a.4 the inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. 15.1 – 15.5 - Sex-linked genes reside on the X chromosome in humans - The Y chromosome is small and carries few genes - In mammals and flies, females and XX and males and XY; X-linked recessive traits are usually expressed in males - Some traits are sex limited or sex influenced - Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and chloroplasts 3.b.1 Gene regulation results in differential gene expression leading to cell specialization.
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