Mac and llc the data link layer has error detection

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the Data-Link layer. MAC and LLC. The Data-Link layer has error detection, frame ordering, and flow control. User information maintained at this layer is called frames . Layer 1 Physical Security : confidentiality Technology : ISDN, Hubs, Repeaters, Cables Protocols : 10BaseT, 100BaseT, 1000BaseT, 10Base2, 10Base5, OC-3, OC-12, DS1, DS3, E1, E3, ATM, BRI, PRI, X.23 n Responsible for the physical transmission of the binary digits through the physical medium. This layer includes things such as the physical cables, interfaces, and data rate specifications. User information maintained at this layer is called bits (the 1s and 0s). Data encapsulation is the process in which information from one packet is wrapped around or attached to the data of another packet. In OSI model each layer encapsulates the layer immediately above it.
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OSI Layers n Process down the stack and up the stack n Each layer communicates with corresponding layer through the stack. OSI Security - 6 Security Services. A security service is a collection of security mechanisms, files, and procedures that help protect the network. n Authentication n Access control n Data confidentiality n Data integrity n Non-repudiation n Logging and monitoring OSI Security - 8 Security Mechanisms. A security mechanism is a control that is implemented in order to provide the 6 basic security services. n Encipherment n Digital signature n Access Control n Data Integrity n Authentication n Traffic Padding n Routing Control n Notarization TCP/IP – Suite of Protocols OSI TCP/IP Protocols Description Application Application Layer Consists of the applications and processes that use the network. Presentation Session Transport Host to Host TCP and UDP Provides end-to-end data delivery service to the Application Layer. Network Internet Layer IP, ARP, RARP, ICMP Defines the IP datagram and handles the routing of data across networks. Data link Network Access Consists of routines for accessing physical networks and the electrical connection. Physical Host-to-Host Transport Layer Protocols: TCP – Transmission Control Protocol n Connection Oriented n Sequenced Packets n Acknowledgment is sent back for received packets n If no acknowledgement then packet is resent n Packets are re-sequenced n Manageable data flow is maintained NOTE: TCP and UDP use port numbers greater than 1023 UDP n Best effort n Doesn’t care about sequence order n Connectionless
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n Less overhead and faster than TCP Internet Layer Protocols IP – Internet Protocol n All hosts on a network have an IP address n Each data packet is assigned the IP address of the sender and receiver n It provides an ‘unreliable datagram service’. Provides: n No guarantees that the packet will be delivered n No guarantee that the packet will be delivered only once n No guarantee that it will be delivered in the order which it was sent ARP – Address Resolution Protocol n Use the IP Address to get the MAC Address n MAC address is 48 bit n IP address is 32 bit n Only broadcast to network first time, otherwise stores IP and MAC info in table
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