The parental schooling variables fs and ms also enter

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The parental schooling variables (FS and MS) also enter equation (1) directly. There are two issues regarding these variables. The first is their interpretation; since child ability, tastes and motivation are not well measured, the estimated impacts of parents’ education partly reflect those child variables. The second is that parents’ education may be measured with error. Fortunately, both the NEC and the NEREC surveys record this variable, so the NEREC data can be used to instrument the NEC variable. If measurement errors are random, instrumental variable estimation will yield consistent estimates. Both the NEREC and NEC data have many variables that describe each child’s school, teacher, and principal ( Q ). School data include school type (see subsection III.B), the student-teacher ratio, whether textbooks and teacher’s guides arrived at the start of the school year, whether student desks, blackboards, computers and toilets are adequate, electricity, access to drinking water, and whether the school is for boys only or girls only.
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18 The NEC surveyed teachers who taught the sampled students when they were in grade 4, but most schools had multiple grade 4 teachers, so the data do not link children to their teachers. For such schools, grade 4 teacher characteristics were averaged. Teacher variables include sex, general education, teacher education, years of teaching experience, teaching experience in primary schools, years at the present school, days absent (reported by the principal), number of in-service training sessions attended, number of visits from “in service advisors” (school inspectors), divisional directors and directors of education, parent-teacher meetings held, whether the teacher teaches students after school, whether adequate equipment and materials were received, and the extent to which students had class books, workbooks, exercise books, pens, pencils and other materials. Lastly, in 2003 trained observers visited these teachers’ classrooms. They recorded teachers’ preparation, pedagogical methods, use of learning materials, interactions with students, use of English, evaluation methods, and overall enthusiasm. Principals have similar quality variables, including gender, general education, teacher education, years of experience (including years as a teacher), years of experience as a principal, experience as a principal in the current school, frequency of inspecting teachers’ lesson plans and supervising teachers, frequency of staff meetings on education matters, whether the school belongs to a “school family” (explained in Section V), school family meetings attended, parent-teacher meetings attended, educational reform programs attended at the district, zone and division levels, and parent awareness programs.
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  • Winter '17
  • DR. G.K. MAKAU
  • Economics

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