3 constellations and latitude northern southern the

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latitude equals the altitude of Polaris. 3. Constellations and Latitude Northern southern -The constellations we can see depend on our latitude; in the N-hemisphere, we see
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constellations N of the CE, while in the S-hemisphere, we see constellations S of the CE. 4. -Every night at given latitude, each star rises and sets at the exact same azimuths. -The Polynesians determined direction at sea using a “star compass”, in which the horizon is divided into directions marked precisely by the rising or setting of bright stars. Chapter 2 1. The Maya (~300-1500 AD) -Mayan sites and records reveal: the Maya tracked celestial cycles in order to worship the gods which they associated with celestial bodies. 2. -The Mayan pyramid of Kukulcan has 365 steps, indicating that the Mayans were aware of the Sun’s annual cycle. -The annual pattern of light and shade on the walls were used to track the time of year. Eg, on the equinoxes, a serpent of light is created by the shadow cast on the wall ending with a serpent’s head. 3. The openings in the dome of the observatory EL Caracol are aligned to the northernmost and southernmost setting positions of planet Venus, allowing the Maya to measure the duration of Venus’ cycle in the sky.
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4. Mayan Astronomical Records -The Mayan astronomers recorded historical data in durable “bark books”, some of which contained astronomical data. -E.g. The “Dresden codex” contained the Mayan dates of both the full eclipse cycle and the full Venus cycle. 5. -Mayan number symbols, which visually represent their quantity, are very efficient for addition and subtraction of large numbers. - This allowed the Maya to easily record the #of days between celestial phenomena and to recognize the pattern in long-term celestial cycles. 5. Eclipses -Throughout history, lunar and solar eclipses have been seen as heralds of perilous times due to the “damaged” appearance of the Sun or Moon. -Their long-term, complex cycle led most early civilizations to believe that eclipses were random. The Maya, however, found their pattern. 6. The phases of the Moon - As the moon orbits earth once per month, Earth sees different portions of its sunlit side, causing the Moon’s appearance to cycle from completely dark to completely illuminated. - A lunation is one complete cycle of moon phases (e.g. from new moon to new moon).
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- One lunation is, on average, 29.53 days (varies from month to month by a few hours) 1. The cause of the moon’s phases Animation in course website 2. Solar eclipses - A solar eclipse occurs when the moon (new) passes between Earth and Sun and casts a shadow on Earth - A total eclipse is seen from parts of Earth in the Moon’s primary shadow (umbra). - A partial eclipse is seen from the parts of Earth in the Moon’s secondary shadow (penumbra).
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3. Lunar eclipses - A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon (full) passes through Earth’s shadow.
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