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3.How can job analysis and design negatively affect women?
tend to be ignored, trivialized, or undervalued, in part because the influence and power of women in the workplace have been limited.Similarly, the possession and application of some types of skills and knowledge are often ignored in job analysis, again to the detriment of women. Emotional labour, for example, is often a component of female-dominated occupations. Emotional labour is an occupational requirement to manage one’s feeling and to make occupationally appropriate emotional displays, regardless of one’s internal feelings (James, 1989). Servers, teachers, and nurses may be expected to act in ways that trigger positive feelings in others (e.g., exude warmth and compassion), and women typically dominate these roles.When emotional labour occurs in the workplace, its devaluation may beexacerbated by real difficulty in quantifying or relating it to an organization’sbottom line.Emotional labour is mentioned infrequently in most discussions of job analysis, and consequently, it may be undervalued. This omission may reflect that emotional labour tends to be the (unpaid) province of women, and that it occurs mostly in the home (i.e., it is part of the social reproduction we read about in Unit 1). When emotional labour occurs in the workplace, its devaluation may be exacerbated by real difficulty in quantifying or relating it to an organization’s bottom line.Analyzing the Heavy LiftingSimilarly, work undertaken by both women and men may be treated differently for each. For example, when jobs traditionally held by men (e.g., construction, building superintendent) are advertised, they oftenexplicitly discuss lifting requirements. Jobs traditionally done by women (e.g., nursing, teaching) often require lifting as well, but this requirement is rarely mentioned explicitly in job descriptions for such jobs. When employers make this activity invisible, workers—
predominantly women—are denied compensation for the task and mayalso be denied adequate training and equipment to do the job safely.