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Ȱ as ȱ a ȱ result ȱ of ȱ the ȱ cultural ȱ revolution

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ȱAsȱaȱresultȱofȱtheȱCulturalȱRevolution,ȱmillionsȱofȱpeopleȱwereȱforcedȱintoȱmanualȱlaȬbour,ȱandȱthousandsȱwereȱexecuted.ȱȱTheȱdeathȱofȱMaoȱinȱ1976ȱmarkedȱtheȱendȱofȱ“Maoism”ȱandȱtheȱbeginningȱofȱaȱnewȱareaȱinȱChineseȱhistoryȱunderȱtheȱguidanceȱofȱtheȱCPCȱ(CommunistȱPartyȱofȱChina).ȱTheȱCPC,ȱunderȱtheȱleadershipȱofȱGeneralȱSecretaryȱDengȱXiaopingȱ“turnedȱitsȱattentionȱtoȱ‘rightingȱtheȱwrongs’ȱitȱhadȱexperiencedȱduringȱtheȱculturalȱrevolution”ȱ(Chaiȱ2003,ȱp.ȱ167).ȱAsȱaȱconsequence,ȱtheȱCPCȱinstitutedȱaȱpolicyȱofȱ“reformȱandȱopening”ȱtoȱtheȱoutsideȱworldȱinȱ1979,ȱandȱChinaȱfollowedȱaȱpathȱofȱsocialistȱmodernisation.ȱȱSucceedingȱJiangȱZemin,ȱHuȱJintaoȱtookȱoverȱtheȱpositionȱasȱgeneralȱsecreȬtaryȱofȱtheȱCPCȱCentralȱCommitteeȱinȱ2002ȱasȱwellȱasȱpresidentȱofȱtheȱstateȱinȱ2003.ȱInȱ2008,ȱtheȱCPCȱhadȱmoreȱthanȱ67ȱmillionȱmembers.ȱChina at a GlanceChinaȱisȱtheȱworld’sȱmostȱpopulousȱcountryȱwithȱaȱtotalȱpopulationȱofȱaboutȱ1.313ȱbillionȱbyȱtheȱendȱofȱ2005.ȱAfterȱRussia,ȱCanadaȱandȱtheȱUSAȱofȱAmerȬica,ȱChinaȱisȱtheȱfourthȱlargestȱcountryȱinȱtheȱworld.ȱGovernmentally,ȱChinaȱisȱdividedȱintoȱ22ȱprovincesȱ(ChinaȱconsidersȱTaiwanȱitsȱ23rdȱprovince),ȱfiveȱautonomousȱregionsȱ(Guangxi,ȱNeiȱMongol,ȱNingxia,ȱXinjiangȱUygur,ȱXiȬzang)ȱandȱfourȱmunicipalitiesȱ(Beijing,ȱChongqing,ȱShanghai,ȱTianjin)ȱwhichȱareȱdirectlyȱsupervisedȱbyȱtheȱcentralȱgovernmentȱasȱwellȱasȱtheȱspecialȱadministrativeȱregionsȱofȱHongȱKongȱandȱMacao.ȱTheȱcapitalȱofȱChinaȱisȱBeijing.ȱȱImmediatelyȱafterȱtheȱendȱofȱ“Maoism”,ȱasȱDengȱXiaopingȱfocusedȱonȱmarȬketȬorientedȱeconomicȱdevelopment,ȱChinaȱstartedȱtoȱcatchȱupȱeconomicallyȱwithȱtheȱindustrialisedȱWesternȱWorld.ȱTheȱpaceȱofȱChina’sȱeconomicȱdevelȬopmentȱinȱrecentȱyearsȱisȱoutstanding,ȱasȱChina’sȱGDPȱgrowthȱrates,ȱforȱinstance,ȱtotallyȱexceededȱtheȱaverageȱGDPȱgrowthȱrateȱofȱtheȱEUȬ15ȱcounȬCulturalȱȱRevolutionȱEndȱofȱMaoismȱChinaȱTodayȱGeographicȱȱProfileȱEconomicȱProfileȱ
The External EnvironmentPart II147triesȱ(seeȱFigureȱ7.5).ȱChinaȱisȱalsoȱexpectedȱtoȱbecomeȱtheȱleadingȱcountryȱbyȱexportsȱinȱtheȱnearȱfuture.ȱȱAnnualȱGDPȱGrowthȱRatesȱofȱChinaȱandȱtheȱEUȱ15ȱ(ȱinȱ%)ȱȱ8.89.910.110.09.18.38.07.17.82.72.91.82.31.21.21.93.93.00123456789101112199920002001200220032004200520062007ChinaEU 15ȱSource:ȱ,ȱ.ȱHowever,ȱtheȱrapidȱindustrialisationȱalsoȱcausedȱseriousȱproblemsȱforȱtheȱlargestȱmarketȱinȱtheȱworld.ȱProblemsȱincludeȱwidespreadȱpoverty,ȱasȱChinaȱisȱeconomicallyȱaȱveryȱheterogeneousȱcountryȱ(Holtbrügge/Puckȱ2005,ȱp.ȱ31),ȱcorruptionȱandȱaȱveryȱhighȱlevelȱofȱenvironmentalȱpollution.ȱChina’s Culture According to the GLOBE StudyAsȱdescribedȱinȱthisȱChapter,ȱtheȱGLOBEȱstudyȱidentifiedȱnineȱdimensionsȱofȱculture.ȱByȱcomparingȱtheȱrespectiveȱscoresȱtoȱtheȱmeanȱvalueȱofȱallȱ62ȱculturesȱexaminedȱinȱtheȱGLOBEȱstudy,ȱFigureȱ7.6ȱdisplaysȱtheȱresultsȱofȱtheȱstudyȱforȱChina1.ȱȱChina’sȱscoresȱareȱveryȱheterogeneousȱregardingȱnumerousȱdimensionsȱofȱtheȱGlobeȱstudy.ȱTheȱresultsȱindicateȱthatȱinhabitantsȱofȱChinaȱscoreȱheavilyȱonȱperformanceȱorientation,ȱcollectivismȱ(institutionalȱandȱorganisational),ȱhumaneȱorientation,ȱandȱespeciallyȱonȱuncertaintyȱavoidance,ȱallȱofȱwhichȱareȱaboveȱtheȱmeanȱofȱallȱcountries.

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