POL214 Brooks Reading Summaries

Jesse jackson american social activist on sound bites

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* Jesse Jackson (American social activist) on ‘sound bites’ – “they conform to the needs of television technology; long, rambling, or complex statements do not”. Repertory of stereotypes: A term coined by Walter Lippmann, it refers to the media’s tendency to fit current news to a limited number of stereotypes that make news stories more easily understandable for audiences/ readers, but that also sacrifice nuance and even distort the news by squeezing it into a familiar package. Emphasis on Confrontation The visual medium confrontation has two virtues: 1. It involves action being one of the requirements of most television news and public affairs coverage 2. Conflict helps to present a story in a way that viewers can easily grasp 4. The Organizational Filter News management: The practice of organizing press conferences, photo opportunities, and other planned events in ways that accommodate the media’s need for images and information that are available by newspaper/ broadcaster deadlines and in a form likely to be attractive to news editors and to readers or viewers. * The mass media’s demand for the ideas and information generated by experts is based on a combination of factors. 1. Media’s self-image as dispenser of the news, reporter of the facts 2. The media’s need for low-cost information and instant analysis 3. In order to protect themselves against charges of bias and lawsuits, media organizations and reporters need information ‘that can be portrayed as presumptively accurate’ * Predictability and visual appeal is important in determining what becomes ‘news’ * The organizational filter also creates biases that affect media content – simple dramatized confrontation, familiar players, narrow issues and relatively narrow range of locales are a few to mention. 5. The Ideological Filter * It is more likely argued that the media tends to favour stories that attack and challenge groups or established authority. * Those in the media, particularly the electronic media, tend to be more liberal than members of the general population. Barry Cooper and Lydia Miljan both found that… a) English –Canadian journalists tend to be more left-of-centre than the general public b) The left-leaning proclivities of journalists affect the way news stories are reported
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* The public is more conservative on social issues than those in the media * To be on the left in the predominantly liberal societies of Canada and the United States has always meant to be ambivalent about business: to distrust excessive concentrations of economic power and to believe that business must be regulated, while accepting the superiority of private property and the market system of allocation. * Only a minority of those in the mass media have strong left-wing or right-wing tendencies. Most journalists do not challenge the status quo.
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