Gangs corrupt politicians or other agencies who

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gangs, corrupt politicians, or other agencies who violated that sense of goodness with which most readers identified” (Penzler 2007:xi).This can still be found in the noir productions that were then adapted over the years from these hard-boiled stories but which were made to serve often less heroic themes. Similarly to jazz, the hard-boiled private detective remains a wholly American invention, and it was certainly created and given life by the criminal and investigative freedom that the pulp fiction magazines indulged. Although this kind of magazine contained a wide variety of genre fiction, the traditional pulps greatly focused on detective novels and mystery stories. The term today has somewhat lost its meaning, as short stories of this type have changed into a different breed of creative writing, though undeniably pulp fiction has contributed to the evolution of the hero popular fiction of today. However, back in the thirties and forties pulp was a descriptive term which revealed the mass reading preferences of the Americans at that time, their social concerns, and certain attitudes towards political life too. Produced on poor quality paper, these magazines were aimed at the lower social classes and were an alternative to more elitist publications. They managed to satisfy the tastes of the lower working classes and immigrants, and to address their desires and anxieties, especially during the years that followed the Depression era. In fact, many people would see them as an escape from reality, as a form of evasion, where readers were able to identify with protagonists who were also in flight from reality. Considered as a fruitful source with many of the core ingredients that formed film noir in Hollywood in the forties, hard-boiled novels were purchased by the studios due to the increasing interest the public was showing for these kinds of book. They were also choked with advertisements suggesting the commercial viability of such subject matters. Their covers were brilliantly coloured (frequently with young women in peril or as object of desire) marked by graphic and explicit sensationalism and a terse writing style, mainly in the first-person, that emphasised action and adventure over introspection. In this way, millions of copies of this new, uniquely American literature were sold every week.
70 Raymond Chandler not only agreed with this but also added that: My own opinion is that the studios have gone in for these pictures because the Hays Office is becoming more liberal. I think they’re okaying treatments now which they would have turned down ten years ago, probably because they feel people can take the hard-boiled stuff nowadays. Of course people have been reading about murderers, cutthroats, and thieves in the newspapers for the past hundred years, but only recently has the Hays Office permitted the movies to depict life as it really is. (Hanson 2008:42) The Hays Office, named after Will Hays, former head of the Republican National

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