Based on the results of the initial studies two revised and shortened

Based on the results of the initial studies two

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Based on the results of the initial studies, two revised and shortened questionnaires were constructed to measure consideration and initiating structure: the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), and theSupervisory Behavior Description (SBD or SBDQ). Although these two questionnaires are often treated as
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equivalent, they differ somewhat with regard to the content of the behavior scales (Schriesheim & Stogdill, 1975). A third questionnaire, called the Leader Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ), has been treated by some researchers as a measure of behavior, but it is viewed more appropriately as a measure ofleader attitudes. Eventually, researchers at Ohio State University developed a fourth questionnaire, called the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, Form XII. In the LBDQ XII, the scope of consideration and initiating structure was narrowed, and 10 additional scales were added (Stogdill, Goode, & Day, 1962). Some of the new scales measured aspects of leadership behavior (e.g., representation, integration), but other scales measured traits (e.g., uncertainty tolerance) or skills (i.e., predictive accuracy, persuasiveness).It is interesting to note that, even after the new scales were added, most researchers continued to use only the consideration and initiating structure scales.Results in Survey Research The Ohio State leadership questionnaires and modified versions of them have been used in hundreds of survey studies to determine how the two types of leader behavior are related to subordinate satisfaction or performance (Bass, 1990). Scholars have used metaanalyses to examine the overall results (e.g., Fisher & Edwards, 1988; Judge, Piccolo, & Illies, 2004), but the results are difficult to interpret when several different behavior measures and several different types of criteria are included in the same analysis. The studies with all measures from the same source have inflated correlations and should not be analyzed with studies that have an independent measure of effectiveness. The only strong and consistent finding in the survey research was a positive relationship between consideration and subordinate satisfaction. As suggested by the Fleishman and Harris study, subordinates are usuallymore satisfied with a leader who is at least moderately considerate. Initiating structure was not consistently related to subordinate satisfaction; in some studies subordinates were more satisfied with a structuring leader, but other studies found the opposite relationship or nosignificant relationship. Consideration and initiating structure both had a weak positive correlation with indicators of leadership effectiveness, but here again the correlation was not significant in many of the studies. Theweakest results were found in studies that had an independent measure of leadership effectiveness. Unlike Fleishman and Harris, most
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researchers neglected to test for the possibility of curvilinear relationships or an interaction between the two types of behavior. Michigan Leadership Studies Leadership BehaviorsTask-oriented behaviors
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