The grammar language Syntax is the rules of grammar the rules in each language

The grammar language syntax is the rules of grammar

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The grammar language •Syntax is the rules of grammar, the rules in each language for how to combine different words (EX: nouns, verbs, adjectives). •Telegraphic speech: Around 2 years of age (EX: Gimme juice, me up, milk want). Missing grammatical morphemes (EX: “to”, “at”, “-s”, “-ed”). •How do children acquire grammar? -Overgeneralizing words, imitating what they hear but not perfectly. •Behaviorists: Children imitate what they hear but… -Overregularization (EX: “He go-ed to the store”, “There was two mans”) shows us children are using rules. -Kids say things they never hear, that adults never say. •Linguists: Children have some innate architecture or processes that guides the learning of grammar. -Biological basis, to language (EX: Left hemisphere, Broca, Wernicke’s areas). -Hard for primates to learn language. -Development of vocab and grammar are related (one language system). -Poverty of Stimulus argument (Chomsky). -Critical period (Genie). -Learning 1 st language when an infant. -Learning 2 nd language during puberty. 17
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-Genie: girl abused and never exposed to language, she could only yell. Doctors worked with her to help her learn a language and she was able to learn some words but she was never able to finish a sentence. •Cognitive approach: Children use cognitive skills to detect regularities and rules in the environment (EX: After hearing plurals formed with “-s” many times, extract that rule). •Social interaction; -Draws from all three approaches, that language is learned from environment, language is “special”, and children use cognitive skills. -Place focus on learning in context of interactions. Wrap up •From infancy through preschool years, behaviors shift from being more reflexive and controlled by the environment, to more intentional and goal-oriented. As mental representation develops, and then symbolic representation, children are more and more able to gain greater control over themselves and their interactions with the environment. •Although learning language is complex, infants and young children have tremendous plasticity and built-in capabilities to learn (EX: Phoneme driscrimination, statistical learning, fast mapping). •At app what age have infants lost the ability to distinguish all the sounds of the worlds languages? -9-12 months. -9 to 8 months did really well -8 to 10 months is going down by 70% percent -10 to 12 months can recap 30% Born to be social Biologically prepared •Babies become very social because they are cute and they get a lot of interactions from adults. •In what other ways are babies ready to be social? -When a baby is crying it makes us feel uncomfortable and we have uncomfortable responses and we want to do something to make them feel better. -Visual preference for faces. -Auditory preference for voices, and infant-directed speech.
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