Gibbs free energy g is total energy balance derived

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Biochemistry
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Chapter 22 / Exercise 21
Biochemistry
Garrett/Grisham
Expert Verified
SWhat’s important is change in G between conditions!!
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Chapter 22 / Exercise 21
Biochemistry
Garrett/Grisham
Expert Verified
19Entropy, S: randomness and disorder of the universeincreased entropy (+S) = increased disorder = spontaneousdecreased entropy (-S) = decreased disorder = non-spontaneous but… +S- SEntropy
20EnthalpyEnthalpy, H: energy content (heat) derived from volume, pressure and different types and number of bonds. Intuitively: the heat content of chemical bonds+ H: positive enthalpy = increased heat/energy content in a bond = not spontaneous since energy must be transferred into system-H: negative enthalpy = decreased heat/energy content in bond = spontaneous because energy is liberated into the universeC-HC=OMore energy content Less energy content- H+ H
21But living organisms are ordered and rich in endergonic compounds!Figure 2-33 Molecular Biology of the Cell(© Garland Science 2008)Figure 2-35 Molecular Biology of the Cell(© Garland Science 2008)Virus coat proteinsMicrotubules in sperm flagellumPollen grain500 metabolic pathways and their interconnectionsEnergy rich bonds
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-Resulting in ______how does that happen?So, does life break thermodynamic law?
DG
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Figure 2-36 Molecular Biology of the Cell(© Garland Science 2008)Catabolic reactions (release energy) drive anabolic reactions (create order)Catabolism: reactions that are highly exergonic (increase disorder and/or liberate energy) – spontaneous.Breakdown of molecules like sugars and lipidsAnabolism: reactions that are endergonic (decrease disorder and/or “store” energy in bonds) – not spontaneousSynthesis of complex molecules like proteins and nucleic acids_24
Figure 2-40 Molecular Biology of the Cell(© Garland Science 2008)Photosynthesis provides an “unlimited” source of energy25
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27In many living cells, there is a common energy “currency” moleculeFigure 2-55 Molecular Biology of the Cell(© Garland Science 2008)
28Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the common energy “currency” moleculeFigure 2-58 Molecular Biology of the Cell(© Garland Science 2008)
29Information storage and sources of energy: Summary

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