Organizational arrangements vary among companies

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Organizational arrangements vary among companies Major tasks include: o Advertising research, Design o Copywriting, Media analysis o Sales and trade promotion (sometimes) Advertising Agencies - Firms whose marketing specialists help advertisers plan and prepare advertisements o May offer creativity and objectivity that is difficult to maintain in an internal department Media Scheduling - Setting the timing and sequence for a series of advertisements o Influenced by a variety of factors: o Seasonal sales patterns, Repurchase cycles, & Competitors’ activities o Effectiveness is measured in three ways: o Reach - Number of people exposed to an advertisement o Frequency- Number of times an individual is exposed to an advertisement
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o Gross rating point (GRP) - The product of the reach times the frequency 8. Explain the roles of cross-promotion, public relations, and publicity. Cross-Promotion Promotional technique in which marketing partners share the cost of a promotional campaign that meets their mutual needs Public Relations Firm’s communications and relationships with its various publics, including customers, employees, stockholders, suppliers, and government agencies The PR department links the firm and the media The Internet gives PR representatives more direct access to the public Publicity Nonpersonal stimulation of demand for a good, service, place, idea, person, or organization by unpaid placement of significant news regarding the product in a print or broadcast medium Many consumers consider news stories more credible than advertisements 9. Explain how marketers assess promotional effectiveness. Promotional prices vary widely o Billboards are generally the cheapest, while television and newspapers are the most expensive Because of expense, advertising professionals must demonstrate how promotional programs contribute to increased sales and profits Measuring Advertising Effectiveness Media research - Assesses how well a particular medium delivers a message, where and when to place the message, and the size of the audience Message research - Tests consumer reactions to an advertisement’s creative message through pretesting and posttesting Pretesting - Research that evaluates an ad during its development stage Posttesting - Research that assesses advertising effectiveness after it has appeared in a print or broadcast medium Measuring Public Relations Effectiveness The simplest and least costly method o Whether the target audience received, paid attention to, understood, and retained the messages directed to them o Count the number of media placements and gauge the extent of media coverage Conduct focus groups, interview opinion leaders, and more detailed and extensive opinion polls Marketing & Nonmarketing Public Relations Nonmarketing public relations - A company’s messages about general management issues
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Marketing public relations (MPR) - Narrowly focused public relations activities that directly support marketing goals
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