CHEM 151 study guide for all chapters

3 illustrate with structures the cycloaromatization

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3. Illustrate with structures the cycloaromatization reaction involved in the mode of action of calichaemicin γ 1 I and name the inventor of this reaction.
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Chapter 24: Palytoxin 1. Name the marine creature from which palytoxin was isolated, its biological activity, and three scientists who were involved in its structural elucidation. 2. Name the chemist responsible for the total synthesis of palytoxin, the significance of this accomplishment, and the named organic reaction developed during the synthesis. 3. Name the toxins associated with the following species. a) Fuku fish b) Alaska butter clams c) Colombian poison arrow frog
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Chapter 25: Taxol ® 1. Write a brief history (250 words or less) of the discovery, synthesis and development of Taxol ® as an anticancer drug. Provide names of the key players beginning with Julius Caesar.
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2. Draw the molecular structures of Taxol ® and Taxotere ® , including stereochemistry, and name their natural sources. 3. Briefly describe the mechanism of action of Taxol ® as an anticancer drug (25 words or less), indicating why it is not free of side effects. Suggest, in general terms, how you could improve its properties as a medicine. 4. Name four anticancer drugs other than Taxol ® and indicate their chemical nature (e.g. natural product, synthetic compound, antibody, peptide, etc).
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Chapter 26: Mevacor, Zaragozic Acids and the CP Molecules 1. Name two naturally occurring fatty acids (and their source) that are beneficial to human health. 2. Name two drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease and explain how they work. 3. The regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in the human body through medical intervention led to a marked improvement of human health. Using the following keywords write an essay (100 words or less) explaining in scientific terms how this came about (HMG CoA, mevalonic acid, cholesterol, HMG CoA reductase, Mevacor , Lipitor ).
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4. In a short paragraph (50 words or less) describe the scientific contribution of Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein and its implication to medicine for which they received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. 5. Name three natural products possessing cholesterol-lowering properties and for each name one scientist whose group synthesized the molecule in the laboratory. 6. Using chemical structures, describe the asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols and the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins, and name the chemist recognized with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of these reactions.
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Chapter 27: Brevetoxin B 1. Write a short essay (100 words or less) on brevetoxin B, mentioning its occurrence in nature, its biological properties, and its impact on the environment and human health. 2. Name the scientists who elucidated the structure of brevetoxin B in 1981 and the group that synthesized it in 1995.
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3. Write informative notes (10 words or less for each) on the following: a) Ciguatoxin b) Maitotoxin c) Azaspiracid-1 d) Gambieriscus toxicus e) Karenia brevis 4. The following marine organisms produce toxins that cause health hazards to marine life and humans. Match the toxin with its producing organism from the lists below.
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