apparently die hard.Some researchers have attempted to revive components of the need hierarchy concept, using principles from evolutionary psychology. They propose that lower-leveled needs are the chief concern of immature animals or those with primitive nervous systems, whereas higher needs are more frequently observed in mature animals with more developed nervous systems. They also note distinct underlying biological systems for different types of needs. Time will tell whether these revisions to Maslow’s hierarchy will be useful to practicing managers. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YDouglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings; one basically negative labeledTheory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. After studying managers’ dealing with employees, McGregor concluded that the managers’ views the nature of human beings are based on certain assumptions that mold the managers’ behavior toward the employees.Theory X- managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it.Theory Y- managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility.Theory Y assumes higher-order needs dominate individuals. McGregor himself believed Theory Y assumptions were more valid than Theory X. Therefore, he proposed such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations to maximize and employee’s job motivation. Unfortunately, no evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is valid or that acting on Theory Y assumptions will lead to more motivated workers. OB theories need empirical support before we can accept them. Theory X and Theory Y lack such support as much as the hierarchy of needs.Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) TheoryTwo-factor theory is also called motivation-hygiene theoryIntrinsic factors such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement seem related to job satisfaction. Respondents who felt good about their work tended to attribute these factors to themselves, while dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions.To Hertzberg, the data suggest that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, was traditionally believed. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Herzberg proposed a dual continuum: The opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction,” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction.”According to Herzberg, the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Therefore, managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job satisfaction may bring about peace, but not necessarily motivation. They will be placating rather than motivating their workers. As a result, Herzberg characterized conditions
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 18 pages?
- Fall '13