Bergman and allens rules one loses heat because of

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Bergman and Allen’s rules One loses heat because of long appendages and shorter limbs allows for a smaller chance of heat loss. In the example of the hare, hares are skinny with large ears while another animal has tiny little ears and are fatter. As an animal increases their body size, they produce more heat.
Distribution of Homo Erectus - Earliest is found in Indonesia* - There is variability within homo erectus A. African H. erectus = Homo ergaster a. Relative to asian forms: i. More rounded claims ii. Thinner vault bones iii. Lack supraoribtal sulcas (brow ridge..surface of brain?) b. Homo erectus: originated in Africa first, equipped with a large brain, tall body, and excellent hunting tools, and then spread all over Eurasia i. Important to remember the discovery of Dmanisi fossils (Dmanisi, Georgia ) - non-African origin for Homo erectus B. Asian Homo erectus a. Arrived 1.6 mya b. China and Indonesia c. @ Ngandong = Java H. erectus is as recent as 50,000 ya i. “Java Man” found in Java, Indonesia: brain smaller than that of modern humans, could walk on two legs d. @ Zhoukoudian = Peking Man i. Peking Man 1. Bigger brain but still ⅔ of human size 2. Animal bones, stone tools, and ash layers found in the Zhoukoudian cave e. Fossils from Java and China share characteristics: i. Supraorbital torus [bony ridge over the eye sockets] ii. Nuchal torus = thickened bar of bone (most external of these muscles, at the very back of the neck, sometimes leave a noticeable line across the occipital bone--this line is elevated away from the skull) iii. Sagittal keel = thickening of the bone or midline of frontal / parietal bones iv. Face protrudes v. Shovel-shaped incisors vi. Molars have large pulp cavities 1. Odd discovery of bone structure - cross section of the bone was extremely thick 2. Early Homo (Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster) - likely experienced bleeding in the bone around the time of death due to an overabundance of vitamin A in the body. a. A result of eating innards of carnivorous animals b. Dramatic change in environment → change in hominin diet c. Competition increased when woodlands dwindled and grasslands expanded d. Early Homo adults were larger and had smaller teeth → scavenge animal fat and meat i. Could not compete with lions, vultures and hyenas: waited until they were done with their meals and broke through bone
ii. Bone = source of rich nutrition, contain precious marrow, pure fat 3. As we added meat to our diet out of necessity, we also made it possible to increase our brain size. → and body size a. Homo erectus - body and brain size were both considerably bigger than past hominins Earliest Western European Mandible @ Atapuerca , Spain 1.2 mya Unclear if Homo erectus or other species Fire Suggests about food Gesher Bnot Ya’akov, Israel Burned animal and plant remains w/ stone tools 750,000 ya Implications → opportunistic users of fire Archaic Homo sapiens (500,000 - 50,000 ya) Junk taxon Some researchers see many species within this as fossil specimens found seem to be intermediates of Homo erectus and modern Homo sapiens Early Homo heidelbergensis

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