For example for a business accounting software

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For example, for a business accounting software: interview all the accountants of the organization to find out their requirements.
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13 Requirements Analysis (CONT.) The data you initially collect from the users: would usually contain several contradictions and ambiguities: each user typically has only a partial and incomplete view of the system.
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14 Requirements Analysis (CONT.) Ambiguities and contradictions: must be identified resolved by discussions with the customers. Next, requirements are organized: into a Software Requirements Specification (SRS) document.
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15 Requirements Analysis (CONT.) Engineers doing requirements analysis and specification: are designated as analysts .
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16 Design Design phase transforms requirements specification: into a form suitable for implementation in some programming language.
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17 Design In technical terms: during design phase, software architecture is derived from the SRS document. Two design approaches: traditional approach, object oriented approach.
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18 Traditional Design Approach Consists of two activities: Structured analysis Structured design
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19 Structured Analysis Activity Identify all the functions to be performed. Identify data flow among the functions. Decompose each function recursively into sub-functions. Identify data flow among the subfunctions as well.
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20 Structured Analysis (CONT.) Carried out using Data flow diagrams (DFDs) . After structured analysis, carry out structured design: architectural design (or high- level design) detailed design (or low-level design).
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21 Structured Design High-level design: decompose the system into modules , represent relationships among the modules. Detailed design: different modules designed in greater detail: data structures and algorithms for each module are designed.
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22 Object Oriented Design First identify various objects (real world entities) occurring in the problem: identify the relationships among the objects. For example, the objects in a pay-roll software may be: employees, managers, pay-roll register, Departments, etc.
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23 Object Oriented Design (CONT.) Object structure further refined to obtain the detailed design. OOD has several advantages: lower development effort, lower development time, better maintainability.
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24 Implementation Purpose of implementation phase ( coding phase): translate software design into source code.
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25 Implementation During the implementation phase: each module of the design is coded, each module is unit tested tested independently as a stand alone unit, and debugged, each module is documented.
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26 Implementation (CONT.) The purpose of unit testing: test if individual modules work correctly.
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