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How leaders impact employee creativity a study of Indian R&D laboratories-Indian.pdf

High power distance reflective of traditional respect

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high power distance reflective of traditional respect for paternalistic, hierarchic authority by age, caste, family status and gender; 3 . medium collectivist orientation influenced by extended family, caste, religious and linguistic affiliations, with the resultant in‐group and out‐group relationship orientations; 4 . medium masculinity reflected in moderate levels of assertiveness, interest in acquiring money and things, relative to affiliation and social relationships; and 5 . strong long‐term time orientation as opposed to short‐term horizons consistent with cultural respect for past traditions and widespread belief in supernatural forces controlling trans‐generational, future outcomes of events. Our study reported “task‐oriented” behaviour and “leading by example” behaviour as important metacategories. Indians are highly status conscious and are dependence prone. They seek assistance, support, suggestions, and attention even in situations where they are capable of functioning on their own (Sinha, 2008). A leader who is involved in identification of the work‐related problems and in solving them is more likely to enhance his/her subordinate's motivation, self‐confidence and enthusiasm Politics and power play are an integral part of Indian society. An effective leader acts as a buffer between senior management and the juniors and saves them from undue political interferences. India is collectivist society. Every individual in India is always linked to the rest of social body by a network of diversified ties. They prefer personalized relationships based on their societal values of deference (sneh) and affection (shraddha). The role of the superior is to provide guidance and protection to the subordinate, nurturance and care and the role of the subordinate, in return, is to be loyal and deferent to the superior. The natural imperative is to cope with exigencies collectively as well as to grow together. Those striving for the collective's achievement are appreciated, for achievement in Indian culture implies being a good person, thinking about the well‐ being of others, fulfilling one's duties, and helping others. Supervisors, by emphasizing team work, can increase the frequency of interactions between team members (Mumford et al., 2002). Increased interactions may lead to greater understanding of the problem and to creative solutions to the problem (Hoegl et al., 2004).
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Contextual variables Substitute for leadership theory presents a model to identify the contextual variables that can influence the perceived importance of leadership by employees. They include the characteristics of individual, task, or organization that may make leader behaviour unnecessary or redundant. A list of the variables has been provided in Table VI. Table 5 Substitutes for leadership chosen for the study Based on our interviews with scientists in research laboratories, we identified employee gender, education and job level as important individual level contextual variables. R&D professionals are better educated, having one or more college degrees that evidence high intelligence and often high criticalness. Little direction is
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  • Summer '13
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