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2 social life involves some inducement and coercion

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2. Social life involves some inducement and coercion (to achieve consensus) becauseconsensus is not voluntary – it has to be forced. Consensus achieved through oppression.
3. Social life is divisive because social structures tend to encourage inequality, exclusion,conflict and hostility.4. Social systems are always changing, are unstable and social change is violent – people resentchange.Examples are:MarxistNeo-MarxistTHEORIES:1. Evolutionary and Neo-Evolutionary TheoriesDeveloped by August Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Karl Marx. These theories from the ideas ofCharles Darwin (1859):- “Origin of Species.”- Societies develop through stages from simple/ primitive to complex systems that with thisdevelopment; social structures become more specialized and differentiated – playing specialfunctions.- They believed that social development follows a common universal pattern whosecharacteristics can be observed and described; social change is one-dimensional i.e. it follows acommon pattern towards a known direction. All societies have to follow the same continuum/pattern – so all societies are at different stages of development.Simple/primitiveCivilized/complex
Neo-evolutionary theorists acknowledge that societies do evolve through stages but argue thatsocieties do not necessarily have to follow similar pattern. Some societies skip certain stagesdue to borrowing and diffusion.Relevance to Education1. Education as a social structure has to adjust and adapt to social progress and change; and toguide society through this change.2. Education has to maintain social stability.2. Structural - FunctionalismStructure is the skeleton, framework, the anatomy, the physical outlook. Function – theoperational aspect of air, object, its role.The theories were developed by Herbert Spencer, Talcott Parsons, Emile Durkheim, and RobertMerton.As a theoretical perspective, structural functionalism is an analogy between socialsystems and organic systems. Claim that society like an organism is composed of a set ofinterrelated parts which work in harmony to produce to produce a stable social system. Thenature of social institutions is understood in terms of the functions of each of them plays inenhancing smooth running of society.(Kombo talks of – Positive consequences)The existence of a social institution is justified by the role it plays in maintaining social stability.The well-being of society depends on the working efficiency of its institutions and each socialstructure has to play a vital or necessary function. The different parts are however
interdependent and work together and wok together to maintain social order (work intandem). Generally, each society is like an organism, with different parts.According to structural – functionalism any change in the function of a structure is aresponse to a need arising in the wider society. This structure will be called upon to re-adjustand perform a new function. This theory is however a bit simplistic because certain socialstructures play more than one function and at times some are dys-functional/ disruptive tosocial order.

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