Integrating business and society: the link between CSR and competitive advantage 113 that the Community position becomes interesting and differentiating, the Commission recognizes an inadequate governance at the global and national level, which legitimizes and necessitates a Community action of regulation. The Commission not only confirms the necessity of regulation but also legitimizes the European level to lead it. The necessity of a promotion by the public authorities, the results obtained thanks to the CSR also come from the inadequate governance at the global and national level. The CSR thus comes to represent completely different challenge for the European Commission. In a situation of increasing globalization of the economy with strong internationalization of political governance, CSR can be seen to reflect the expectation of social and environmental decency and a felt need for sharing of wealth from global corporate operations. Large segments of the population, especially in rich welfare states, are therefore sympathetic to mobilization against some of the negative side effects of the global market economy. At the industrial level, large West European and North American multinational companies, in particular, are finding it necessary to develop CSR programs and initiatives to comply with societal expectations, voiced by sophisticated interest groups, often with considerable media coverage. In an increasingly media-driven society, the concern with brand profiling and reputation effects leads to demands for corporate responsibility at a new level. 2. Empirical research method The research instrument was designed primary on the basis of measurement scales and comprised a questionnaire of 24 multiple-choice questions. We contacted a stratified sample of 40 companies with five to fifty employees in both manufacturing and service industries drawn from a database covering the Romanian firms. A total of 38 companies completed the questionnaires amounting to a response rate of 95 percent. The distribution of respondents according to size and industry corresponds to the distribution among all Romanian firms with five to fifty employees. However, to increase reliability the sample was stratified in order to give a slight over-representation of firms in manufacturing industries as well as in the larger size categories. The degree to which corporations demonstrate their implication in CRS to get the competitive advantages through their practices was assessed using the six- dimension scale (items). Items were rated with a scale containing “0” (not answer), “1” (not influence), “2” (minor influence), “3” (moderate influence), “4” (major influence), “5” (very strong influence), and responses indicating that an influence was not possible or the impact was very high.
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- Spring '20
- Dr. ASRAVOR
- Corporate social responsibility, Gheorghe Militaru