157 see id asserting that an injustice that

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157. See id. (asserting "that an injustice that previously was directed only towards women, is now more equally distributed between men and women"). 158. See generally WORLD ECON. FORUM, supra note 6 (comparing various gender- based statistics of numerous countries, including Iceland and the United States). 159. Id. at 12 tbl.3b. 160. See Eydal & Rostgaard, supra note 10, at 174 (describing Iceland's shared parental leave policy as progressive among Nordic countries and likewise, influential outside the region); see also WORLD ECON. FORUM, supra note 6, at 220-21, 370-71 (noting Iceland and U.S. rankings globally in women's economic participation and opportunity and women's health and survival). 20151
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HOUSTON JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW passage of the Iceland Act. 161 It seems that the introduction of the Iceland Act may have contributed to reducing this gap somewhat, as women's income compared to men's income increased from 56.7% in 1998 (before the introduction of the family leave law) to 63.7% in 2005 (five years after the implementation of the family leave law). 1 6 2 It is estimated that the adjusted wage gap, accounting for factors such as occupation, education, and work experience, is much smaller at 8-18%, but there is still no clear explanation for this remaining gap. 163 Iceland's relatively poor gender gap rankings in economic participation and health and survival, as well as its persistent wage gap, indicate that while Iceland can provide the United States with valuable insights into policies that may alleviate gender inequality to some extent, Iceland does not yet have an ideal solution in place to resolve all gender discrepancies. 16 4 Notably, Iceland also does not have the most generous family leave law in the world. Several industrialized nations provide for greater lengths of leave or greater percentages of pay. 16 5 For instance, Germany, France, and New Zealand each provide 100% of pay during maternity leave. 16 6 In Denmark, 52 weeks of leave are provided, of which 32 weeks may be divided between the mother and father; the full length of leave is paid at 161. See Jonsdottir, supra note 98, at 7 (stating that in 2005, women's income was 63.7% of men's income, and 79% of men's income when the number of working hours was taken into consideration). 162. See id. (describing Iceland's gender pay gap in 2005 compared to 1998). But see id. at 8 (asserting that Iceland's gender pay gap has not changed since 2000, despite a 2006 study in which the majority of respondents said parental leave laws significantly improved women's position in Iceland's labor market). 163. Id. at 7. 164. See id. at 7-8 ("There is not much indication that the gender pay gap is getting smaller in Iceland. In general, studies show that the gender pay gap has remained the same in recent years or is even increasing."); WORLD ECON. FORUM, supra note 6, at 16, 18-19 tbl.5 (providing, as examples of how Iceland still experiences gender discrepancies, that Iceland ranks twenty-second with respect to closing the gender-gap in economic participation and opportunity, and ninety-seventh with respect to closing the gender disparity in health and survival).
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