America indentured servant unwilling to do the back

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English immigrant to West Indian > N. America Indentured servant unwilling to do the back-breaking, monotonous work of sugar cultivation Importation of slaves began 1645: Barbados, tiny island owned by England 11K whites & indentured servants & 5K slaves Sugar cultivation increase = slaves increases 17 th century: huge sugar plantation manned by 100s of slaves in West Indies Sugar was the first crop to be mass-marketed to consumers in Europe Before it: international trade consist of precious metals like gold & silver, spices, silk Sugar was far more important product of Brit, French and Portuguese empire Immense profits for planters, merchants, and imperial governments 1660: Barbados generated more trade > all colonies combined Slavery developed slowly in N. America Slaves cost > indentured servants High death rate in tobacco workers: makes it no economic sense to pay for slaves In Chesapeake: black and white was not a thing White plantation owners dominating politic & society > everyone else Slavery and the law Las Siete Partidas : Spain a series of laws granting slaves certain rights marriage, the holding of property, and access to freedom these law were transfer to Spain’s America often violated
gave slaves opportunities to claim right under the law Catholic Church encouraged masters to free indiv slaves Slavery in English b/c far more repressive > Spanish empire 17 th century Chesapeake: blacks legal status remain ambiguous & line b/w slavery & freedom vague Virginia 1619 First 20 African arrived Brit pirate ship seized them from Portuguese ship carrying slaves from Angola First black arrivals were almost certainly treated as slaves b/c free after serving a term of years 1620s The law barred blacks from serving in the Virginia militia Government punished sexual relations outside of marriage b/w Africans and Europeans More server > two white persons 1643, poll tax (tax levied on indiv) imposed on African but not white women Both Virginia & Maryland free blacks could sue and testify in court own property purchase white servants or African slaves Black and whites labored side by side in tobacco fields, sometimes ran away together – intimate relationship The Rise of Chesapeake Slavery 1640s: record of blacks held as slaves for life Register of property: White servants are listed by years of labor Black: higher valuations: no terms of service associated w/ their names 1660: laws of Virginia and Maryland refer explicitly to slavery Tobacco planting spread and demand for labor increased Condition of black and white servant diverged sharply Improve the statues of white servants Counteract the rumor that Virginia is a death trap Access to freedom for black receded Virginia law of 1662 The case of a child one of whose parents was free and one slave The status of the offspring followed that of the mother

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