Chapter 2 Book Notes

And worlds born and die repeatedly apeiron infinite

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and worlds born and die repeatedly (apeiron – infinite) Atomists held that both Earth and the heavens were made from an infinite number of indivisible atoms of each of the four elements Aristotelians held that the four elements were confined to the realm of Earth, while the heavens were made of a distinct fifth element called aether or quintessence Conclusion: Atomists became associated with atheism and debate about ET life became intertwined with debates about religion. How did the Copernican revolution further the development of science? Copernicus was able to calculate each planet’s orbital period around the Sun and its relative distance from the Sun in terms of Earth-Sun distance His model was inaccurate because he believed in perfect circles Tycho built large naked-eye observations that worked like giant protractors to measure planetary positions to within 1 minute of arc Small discrepancies led Kepler to abandon idea of circular orbits Kepler’s first law: The orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus Perihelion – near the sun; Aphelion – away from the sun; Semimajor axis – average of a planet’s perihelion and aphelion distances Kepler’s second law: As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times Kepler’s third law: More distant planets orbit the Sun at slower average speeds, obeying
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and worlds born and die repeatedly apeiron infinite...

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