Gender differences have a major impact on fashion and

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the 1920s (Paoletti 1987). Gender differences have a major impact on fashion, and in turn, fashion is a forceful purveyor of cultural norms and symbols that can shape and express gender differences. The feminine and masculine sides of the fashion industry are clearly delimited, with different creative and productive processes, such as dif- ferent fashion shows. Today, the feminine side clearly prevails (Manlow 2007). Historically, this has not always been the case. For example, in eighteenth-century Europe, men's fashion was at least as extravagant and significant as women's fashion. In Europe, the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a sober and simpler dress for men. This is because, as first theorized by Goblot (1925 [2010]), in Euro- pean bourgeois families men had to show their focus on work through understated clothes but simultaneously had to display their wealth through the adornment of their wives. Today, gender boundaries are not as clearly defined, even though they are still prevalent all over the world. The more recent feminist approach to fashion has led to a deconstruction of binary gender oppositions (Kaiser 2012), paying heed to Wilson's (2003) call not to dismiss fashion. Ethnicity has been shown to influence fash- ion (and to be influenced by it) in several con- texts, including the role of designers from Japan in French fashion (Kawamura 2004). Another example is Lieberson & Bell's (1992) focus - in the case of the United States - on gender, eth- nicity, and class differences to explain the choice of first names. For example, their research shows that among Caucasian Americans, girls' first names tend to change more often than boys' names and to be more novel. They ex- plain that this pattern fits with the wider belief that women need to be attractive through their first name, whereas men's names are supposed to embody social stability. They conclude their study by stating that " [e] ven in situations where organizations and institutions seek to alter and manipulate tastes and fashions, as through advertising, it is likely that there are a set of underlying societal and cultural dispositions that set limitations and boundaries around such efforts" (Lieberson & Bell 1992, p. 549). More generally, Eicher (1999) argues that ethnicity and dress have to deal with space and time, in the sense that ethnic dress varies not only with the location of its wearers (Hansen 2004) but also with the period under consideration and is in no way stable. In this sense, ethnic dress is not akin to tradition. It belongs to fashion and is a major driver of identity. Class and Identity Over time, consumption of fashion has moved from being class-oriented to lifestyle-oriented (Crane 2000, pp. 134-36). Class fashion was characterized by a centralized system of 184 Aspers • Godart This content downloaded from 134.7.34.232 on Sat, 04 Apr 2020 15:06:44 UTC All use subject to
production, whose output was followed by buyers. Codes of dress and behavior meant that variation of clothes and styles was limited. A more diversified society goes hand in hand with a more diversified set of fashions. Today, we

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