It has even been argued that this disorder be removed

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It has even been argued that this disorder be removed from the DSM-5 proposing the dominant features should be preserved under an exhibitionist subtype of narcissism (Novais, Araujo & Godinho, 2015). Strikingly different from the other Cluster B disorders, studies of HPD result in showing no reduction in quality of life or social functioning. Rather, HPD is often associated positively with status and wealth (Furnham, 2014). Research on the etiology of HPD is limited. According to Skodol, Bender, Morey, Clark, Oldham, Alarcon, Krueger, Verheul, Bell & Stever (2011) biological and genetic studies that have been done show no factors to note with regard to what causes this disorder to develop (p. 534). Although no genetic links were discovered in HPD, environmental factors contributed to 50% of the variance among these traits and disorders as a cluster (Skodol, et. al., 2011). Lastly, biological studies on HPD resulted in findings that were weak and nonspecific (Skodol, et. al., 2011). Treatment for HPD and SUD remains congruent with treatment for other Cluster B disorders. Symptoms of HPD and SUD’s share similarities such as low impulse control, affect and reactivity, however, research on tension-reduction motives suggests that SUD’s reflect a maladaptive coping response to high negative affect or high stress reactivity (James & Taylor, 2007). A study of 102 patients using the CGI, PNASS, HDRS and TCI-R was used to measure depressive symptomologies. This study shows a comorbid presence of two pathologies results in a worse personal situation with less autonomy and less validation than those with a SUD only (Mondragon & Adan, 2015). With HPD being closely related to BPD, treatment using DBT and CBT appears to be the most prudent to target both the HPD symptoms as well as the SUD.
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CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 12 Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is marked by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity whether it be reality or fantasy, an excessive need for admiration and a lack of empathy for others (DSM-5, 2013). This personality considers themselves of great importance and often over exaggerates achievements and talents expecting to be recognized as superior without adequate, supporting achievements while demanding excessive admiration. They believe themselves to be special and tend to associate with elite types of people expecting automatic compliance to their suggestions or demands as well as presuming favor. This personality is often arrogant and carries a jealousy of others while believing others are envious of them. This personality lacks empathy and the ability to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others (DSM-5, 2013). Given the overview of NPD, researchers propose subtypes of NPD exist depending upon the severity of the symptoms as well as specific types of NPD. For example, Calligor, Levy, & Yeomans (2015) propose four facets of NPD. Typical features of this disorder include a sense of grandiose, a covert subtype in alignment with the DSM-5. However, there is a healthier, high
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  • Spring '18
  • Borderline personality disorder, Antisocial personality disorder, Narcissistic personality disorder

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