They may lead to pressure points and infection (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk & Wilson, 2014). 2. Describe the normal expected growth and development for children of the following agesaccording to Erickson and Piaget. What play would you engage the child in, and what would be appropriate distractions for child of these ages?
SIMULATION9 Showing 6 months old books with colorful pictures, giving them differently shaped colorful toys is appropriate. To distract them singing the songs or blowing bubbles would be a good idea.4-5 years-Erikson: Initiative vs. guilt – the stage of development where kids explore the world, are energetic, interact with others, and develop conscience. If these factors are not met, a child may develop guilt. It may also be developed when a child is engaged in dangerous behavior and their parents would try to stop them. Kids are very curious at this time and ask a lot of questions.Piaget: Preoperational stage – the factor of this stage is egocentrism, “the inability to put oneself in the place of another” ((Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk & Wilson, 2014, p. 758). Kidssee things only from their point of view. Thinking is concrete based on what is seen or heard. Their ability to use the language and imagination develops (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk & Wilson, 2014).Drawing, singing, playing with favorite movie character toys is appropriate. Familiar objects should be used, such as a favorite blanket or stuffed animal, and play role is recommended, for example letting the child to listen to the nurse’s heart sounds before she does it to the child. 7-9years-Erikson: Industry vs. inferiority – during this stage children start to compete with the peers, learn the rules, and try to achieve their goals. If they cannot do what others expect of them,inferiority may occur.Piaget: Concrete operations - kids are now able to think concretely and logically. They develop conservation, which is understanding that “physical factors such as volume, weight, and
SIMULATION10 number remain the same even though outward appearances are changed” (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk & Wilson, 2014, p. 758). Abstract thinking is not yet developed.Drawing and reading books may help relax and express their thoughts and fears. Asking them about a favorite movie or a book may help distract them.Adolescent (16years old)-Erikson: Identity vs. role confusion – physical changes are visible; teenagers are very sensitive to how they look like and compare themselves to peers. They start thinking about intimate relationships and future careers. If they cannot fit in a society, they may develop role
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- Fall '16
- Denise Cauble