Lipolysis of the pancreatic cells and tissues

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Chapter 11 / Exercise 140
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lipolysis) of the pancreatic cells and tissues, resulting in inflammation. Acute pancreatitis is usually a mild disease and spontaneously resolves; however, approximately 20% of those with the disease develop a severe acute pancreatitis that requires hospitalization. Pancreatitis develops because of a blockage to the outflow of pancreatic digestive enzymes caused by bile duct or pancreatic duct obstruction (e.g., gallstones). Acute pancreatitis can also result from direct cellular injury from drugs or viral infection. 35. The mutation of which gene is an early event associated with the pathogenetic origin of esophageal cancer? a. K-ras mutation c. myc b. TP53 d. HER2 ANS: B Mutation of the TP53 gene is an early event associated with esophageal cancer. This selection is the only mutation from among the provided options. 36. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than what measurement? a. 22 c. 28 b. 25 d. 30 ANS: D Obesity is an energy imbalance, with caloric intake exceeding energy expenditure, and is defined as a BMI greater than 30. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 37. Which statements are true regarding parietal pain? (Select all that apply.) a. Parietal pain arises from the parietal peritoneum. b. It is generally more localized than visceral pain. c. Parietal pain is usually less intense than visceral pain. d. Nerve fibers that travel to the spinal cord are involved in parietal pain. e. Parietal pain corresponds to dermatomes T6 and L1. ANS: A, B, D, E Parietal pain arises from the parietal peritoneum and is more localized and intense than visceral pain. Nerve fibers from the parietal peritoneum travel with peripheral nerves to the spinal cord, and the sensation of pain corresponds to skin dermatomes T6 and L1.
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Chapter 11 / Exercise 140
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38. Which statements are true regarding chronic gastritis? (Select all that apply.) a. Chronic gastritis tends to occur in older adults. b. It causes thinning and degeneration of the stomach wall. c. Chronic gastritis results in chronic inflammation and mucosal atrophy. d. Mucosal atrophy is a common outcome of chronic gastritis. e. Epithelial metaplasia is often observed with chronic gastritis. ANS: A, C, D, E Chronic gastritis tends to occur in older adults and causes chronic inflammation, mucosal atrophy, and epithelial metaplasia. Neither thinning nor degeneration of the stomach wall is associated with chronic gastritis. 39. Which hormones are natural appetite suppressants? (Select all that apply.) a. Insulin b. Cortisol c. Galanin d. Calcitonin e. Serotonin ANS: A, D, E Insulin, calcitonin, and serotonin are natural appetite suppressants, whereas cortisol and galanin are natural appetite stimulants.

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