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Many times they would change the notes by adjusting their lips against the mouth piece but they could cover/open finger hole tochange pitch oBrass Instruments in common use today include (from highest to lowest pitched)Trumpet: Modern trumpet uses valves to move from note to noteFrench Horn: Modern horn also uses valves to change notesTrombone: A Slide is used to change notes by adjusting the length of tubing Tuba: Very large & low pitched that uses valves to change notes oCornet & Euphonium (tuba family) are used in concerts & marching bandsoTrumpets & Trombone are popular in jazz instrumentsPercussion Instruments
oProduce sound when struck, shaken, or scraped oFall into 2 categories: 1. Produce definite pitch/pitches 2. Producesound without a definite pitch (referred to as “indefinite” pitchoCommon use before 1750 included bells, cymbals, triangles, nakers (2 drums tied around the players waist & hit with sticks), tabor (single drum), timpani (large kettle-shaped drums) oBells, cymbals, & triangles are made of metaloBells often came in different sizes & produced definite pitches – they could be used to play melodiesoCymbals & Triangles had no definite pitchoNakers, tabor, & timpani were drums with animal skin stretched & tightened acrossoNakers & tabor were not tuned to any pitch although they could produce high & low tones depending on size. The smaller – the higher. oTimpani had screws that you could tighten/loosen to change the pitchoDefinite Pitch: Timpani: AKA Kettle drums, usually sets of 2-5 drums varying sizes. Modern are tuned by pedals that are easier to adjust than were screwsGlockenspiel: 2 rows of steel bars, A crisp bell-like sound is produced by striking the bars with mallets Celesta: A glockenspiel with keyboard that makes it look like an upright pianoXylophone: Made of tuned wooden bars that produce a hollow sound with struck by malletsMarimba: Xylophone with resonators under each bar Chimes: Set of tuned metal tubes suspended vertically in a frame. They are played with 1-2 mallets and they sound like church bellsVibraphone: Set of metal bars arranged similar to piano keyboard. Uses an electrical mechanism to produce instruments characteristic vibrato (fluctuation of pitch) effect. More common used in jazz than orchestrasoIndefinite Pitch: Just about anything that can be struck, scraped, or manipulated to produce a different soundBass drum: Large, deep-sounding drum with 2 heads
Side (or square) drum: has 2 heads, the top is hit with sticks. Thebottom is rigged with metal wires that vibrate against when the head is struckTambourine: Circular wooden frame, usually with a single head, &metal discs that jingle when it’s shaken/struckTriangle: Bent metal rod struck with a metal beaterCymbals: Metal discs that ring when they are hit against the otherGong: AKA Tam-tam, usually large suspended metal disc that is struck with a padded malletTom-toms: Cylindrical drums with 2 heads and no squares. Made in many sizes & played with sticks, mallets, & brushes for different effects