22-7 The three general methods for determining transfer prices are: 1. Market-based transfer prices 2. Cost-based transfer prices 3. Hybrid transfer prices
22-2 22-8 Transfer prices should have the following properties. They should 1. promote goal congruence, 2. be useful for evaluating subunit performance, 3. motivate management effort, and 4. preserve a high level of subunit autonomy in decision making. 22-9 No, the chapter illustration demonstrates how division operating incomes differ dramatically under the variable-cost, full-cost, and market-price methods of transfer pricing. 22-10 Transferring products or services at market prices generally leads to optimal decisions when (a) the market for the intermediate product market is perfectly competitive, (b) interdependencies of subunits are minimal, and (c) there are no additional costs or benefits to the company as a whole from buying or selling in the external market instead of transacting internally. 22-11 One potential limitation of full-cost-based transfer prices is that they can lead to suboptimal decisions for the company as a whole. An example of a conflict between divisional action and overall company profitability resulting from an inappropriate transfer-pricing policy is buying products or services outside the company when it is beneficial to overall company profitability to source them internally. This situation often arises where full-cost-based transfer prices are used. This situation can make the fixed costs of the supplying division appear to be variable costs of the purchasing division. Another limitation is that the supplying division may not have sufficient incentives to control costs if the full-cost-based transfer price uses actual costs rather than standard costs. The purchasing division sources externally if market prices are lower than full costs. From the viewpoint of the company as a whole, the purchasing division should source from outside only if market prices are less than variable costs of production, not full costs of production. 22-12 Reasons why a dual-pricing approach to transfer pricing is not widely used in practice include: 1. In this approach, the manager of the supplying division uses a cost-based method to record revenues and does not have sufficient incentives to control costs. 2. This approach does not provide clear signals to division managers about the level of decentralization top management wants. 3. This approach tends to insulate managers from the frictions of the marketplace because costs, not market prices, affect the revenues of the supplying division. 4. It leads to problems in computing the taxable income of subunits located in different tax jurisdictions. 22-13 Disagree. Cost and price information are often useful starting points in the negotiation process. Costs, particularly variable costs of the selling division, serve as a “floor” below which the selling division would be unwilling to sell. Prices that the buying division would pay to
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