2014 provide many exemplary cases underpinning this

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( 2014 ) provide many exemplary cases underpinning this archetype, out of which many can be seen to be emerging strongly in the TCF sector, viz. peer-to-peer (P2P), crowd-based, platform-based, open innovation, cocreation, and digitalization. Collaborative business models in this context provide a scope for rapid scaling up and include various exemplar cases, such as crowd-sourcing/crowdfunding and open innovation. Collaborative networked organizations (CNOs) tend to open up their boundaries to provide opportunities for other businesses to thrive (Saebi and Foss 2014 ). Such collaborations can be the basis for cocreating products or for crowd-sourcing ideas. Such cocreation spans from passive involvement of users, as in niche e-commerce for pretailing, to mass customization to active user involve- ment, where the users are also involved as inventors. Threadless is an online community of artists and an e-commerce Web site based in Chicago, which involves such inventive users by putting designs created and chosen by the online Sustainable Design and Business Models in Textile and Fashion 129
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user community to a public vote. A week later, the top-scoring designs are reviewed by the staff to put into production each week and are fi nally sold worldwide. Designers whose work is printed receive 20 % royalties based on the net pro fi ts and $250 in Threadless gift cards. Such crowd-sourced business model attains scala- bility through its innovative network and active engagement with the user com- munity. Many similar online crowdfunding start-ups, such as Out of X, Carte Blanche, and Cut on Your Bias, are aimed at demand management by the use of system, software, and other communication channels. In a value network context, such crowd-sourced models and CNOs can be open platforms assimilated through information technology (IT) tools to integrate pro- ducers, suppliers, and customers along various activities (Liu et al. 2014 ; Romero and Molina 2011 ). Such multi-sided platforms act as an intermediary between sellers and buyers as in case of online marketplaces, thus connecting multiple stakeholders, third parties, and consumers. Open Garments is an EU-funded research initiative based upon such open innovation concept where: (i) a virtual user consumer community designs, con fi gures, orders, publishes, shares, and even sell individual garments; (ii) an open manufacturing-based fl exible network of pro- duction units (mainly microenterprises) produces customized physical goods; and (iii) a knowledge-based manufacturing service provider (MSP), which is the open platform, acts as a service provider in between (Open Garments 2009 ). Such open innovation platforms, apart from rede fi ning the collaborative format (where users are designers), also attempt to change the consumption pattern by radically in fl uencing the production model. Mina et al. ( 2014 ) explain that the service innovators as a central component of such platform of interactions (e.g., Web-based collaboration platforms) support both upstream and downstream activities and are
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