20. These reactions can also be reversed, breaking the large molecule into its individual molecules. What substance would need to be added in order to reverse the reaction? 21. Lysismeans to split or separate. What prefix would you add to lysis to mean separate or split using water? 22. Using your answers to the previous two questions, what word is used to describe the reaction that uses water to break apart a large molecule?
Biological Molecules 5 23. Metabolism is the collective term used to describe all the chemical reactions taking place inside living organisms. Why is water so important for metabolic reactions? 24. We store excess food in our body either in the form of carbohydrates (in muscles and the liver) or as fat (adipose tissue). When our body needs additional energy it uses the carbohydrate source first as a source of “quick” energy, then the fat. Why do you think carbohydrates are used as a source of quick energy rather than fat? Use complete sentences and scientific terminology in your response. 25. Look at the two types of fatty acids below, saturated and unsaturated. What is the difference between the two? C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H O H O C C C C C H H H H H H H H H O H O 26. Saturated fats are solid fats, like the animal fats lard and butter, whereas unsaturated fats are more fluid and form oils, such as vegetable oil. Trans fats are plant oils that are artificially solidified to make them suitable for baking purposes. In recent years trans fats have been associated with negative health issues and are not as widely used. Explain in simple molecular terms what would have to be done to a plant oil to transform it to a trans fat. Saturated Fatty Acid Unsaturated Fatty Acid
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