Also important is social reinforcement which is based on praise attention or

Also important is social reinforcement which is based

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that childhood is a time of urgent drives, powerful rewards and punishments, and crushing frustrations.Also important is social reinforcement, which is based on praise, attention, or approval from others. These forces combine to shape the core of personality. Thus, Dollard and Miller believe that during childhood, four critical situations are capable of leaving a lasting imprint on personality. These are (1) feeding; (2) toilet or cleanliness training; (3) sex training; and (4) learning to express anger or aggression. Feeding affects a child’s basic active or passive orientation since children who are fed when they cry learn to actively manipulate the parents and the world, while a child that is allowed to cry without being fed learns to be passive. Feeding also affects later social relationships because the child learns to associate people with pleasure or with frustration and discomfort. Toilet training encourages attitudes toward cleanliness, conformity, and bodily functions. Permissiveness for sexual and aggressive behavior in childhood is linked to adult needs for power. This link probably occurs because permitting such behaviors allows children to get pleasure from asserting themselves. Sex training involves learning socially defined “male” and “female” gender roles, which also affects personality.PTS:16DIF:ModerateREF:Learning Theories of Personality-Habit I Seen You Before?OBJ:10.5.2 / 10.5.5KEY:ConceptMSC:* (New Question)186
7.In the Minnesota study on reunited twins, many of the twins had similarities in facial gestures, nervoustics, voice quality, political beliefs, job histories, hobbies, and favorite foods. Explain whether heredityor environment account for these similarities.ANS:Answer will include that for several decades, psychologists at the University of Minnesota have been studying identical twins who grew up in different homes. Medical and psychological tests reveal that reunited twins are very much alike, even when they are reared apart. They may even be similar in voice quality, facial gestures, hand movements, and nervous tics, such as nail biting. Separated twins also tend to have similar talents. If one twin excels at art, music, dance, drama, or athletics, the other islikely to as well, despite wide differences in childhood environment. However, political beliefs, jobs, most hobbies, and favorite foods would depend mainly on the environment, which can be relatively similar since these twins were the same age and gender and lived in the same historical times and wereexposed to the same influences. In fact, unrelated individuals of the same age can often have numeroussimilarities. Once these twins were reunited, they would be very motivated to seek out similarities, unlike unrelated people. The twins would pay more attention to similarities than to any differences, therefore, illustrating the confirmation bias. Studies of twins make it clear that heredity has a sizable effect on each of us. Thus, it seems reasonable to conclude that heredity is responsible for about 25 to 50 percent of the variation in many personality traits. However, the same figures imply that personality

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