Mady- Popular Discontent Revolution and Democratization in Egypt in a Globalizing world.pdf

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The page gradually expanded to contain political debates on the brutality of the regime and the need for reform. 64 Wael Goniem was one of the administrators of this page. Ghonien was a notable Internet activist during the Egyptian revolution and was on the "Time 100" list of one hundred most influential people of 2011. 65 ElBaradei was among the figures who took advantage of social media tools to disseminate information and communicate with his supporters. 66 Omar Afifi, a former Egyptian police officer, was another activist who participated in the revolution using social media tools. Afifi /technology/archive/2011/02/the-techie-dissidents-who-showed-egyptians-how-to-organize- online/70734/ (discussing gathering online as a way around laws possibly preventing a gather of more than five people). 63. Sarah Ben Neffissa, Mobilization and Revolutions in Mediterranean Arab Countries , in S OCIAL P ROTEST AND C IVILIAN R EVOLUTIONS IN A RAB C OUNTRIES 44-48, (Nabil Abdelfattah ed., 2011); Sarah Ben Neffissa, 18 Days of the Egyptian Revolution , in S OCIAL P ROTEST AND C IVILIAN R EVOLUTIONS IN A RAB C OUNTRIES 311, (Nabil Abdelfattah ed., 2011). 64. Nahed Eltantawy & Julie B. Wiest, Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory , 5 I NT L J. C OMM . 1207, 1213 (2011). 65. Mohamed ElBaradei, Wael Ghonim: Spokesman for a Revolution , TIME , April 21, 2011, available at 2066369,00.html. 66. Eltantawy & Wiest, supra note 64, at 1213. This content downloaded from 131.94.16.10 on Fri, 11 Jan 2019 02:33:54 UTC All use subject to
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332 I NDIANA J OURNAL OF G LOBAL L EGAL S TUDIES 20:1 wrote a book in 2008 advising people how to avoid police brutality. 67 Following the Tunisian revolution, on January 14, 2011, he continued to advise people from the United States via YouTube videos, Facebook, and Twitter, giving advice on topics such as peaceful protest techniques, where protesters should gather, and what they should wear. 68 Although the government restricted the Internet and cell phone calls during the early days of protest in an effort to curb the demonstrations, the government’s attempts at repression failed as protesters used other ways to communicate and displayed a high degree of flexibility in networking. 69 Satellite TV shows, especially on Al Jazeera, continued to contribute to mobilization against the regime. The use of the Internet has had an effective impact on mobilization and protest, yet changes in Egyptian culture have also contributed to mobilization and protest. Some argue that networked society is the important factor in mobilization and protest, and not solely the means of the Internet or phone communications (networked communication). 70 In addition, a successful revolutionary movement should be able to appeal to groups that do not use the Internet. As in most developing countries, the middle and working classes, retirees, and rural individuals might not have access to the Internet.
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