452 Individualism collectivism for the ethnic groups New Zealand as a country

452 individualism collectivism for the ethnic groups

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dissatisfied with their services, due to fear of retribution. 4.5.2 Individualism-collectivism for the ethnic groups New Zealand as a country is ranked high on the individualistic dimension in Hofstede’s (2001) framework. Asians, as a cluster, have lower scores on individualism and have a tendency to be collectivistic (Earley & Gibson, 1998; S. Redding, 1993). Both Maori and Pacific Peoples are considered collectivistic because of their kinship and community ties. Tribal Maori are influenced by their core values of whanaungatanga (relationships) (Mead, 2003) and manaakitanga (to support, care for others) (J. Patterson, 1992). As for the Pacific Peoples, the deeply embedded cultural norms of fa’asamoa (the Samoan way), or other similar norms, promotes collectivism (Macpherson, 2004; Meleisea, 1987). 4.5.2.1 Individualism-collectivism and tax compliance Research shows that individualism celebrates the individual ownership of resources, status, and wealth obtained through personal achievement and efforts (McGrath, MacMillan, & Scheinberg, 1992) whereas collectivism is founded on sharing resources with families and others within in-groups (Triandis et al., 1988). Economic self-interest, self actualisation and the cultivation of personal interests is highly prized by
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55 individualists, compared to the social harmony, consensus and sense of belonging prized by collectivists (A. Cohen, 2007). Individualists give priority to task over relationship, since the ability to successfully achieve the task is rewarded by accomplishments and material wealth (Chen et al., 2002). They have the freedom to pursue their own interests instead of satisfying their group’s obligations, thus enabling the completion of work tasks (Chen et al., 2002; Earley & Gibson, 1998). Individualists have less access to in-group resources, but for the collectivists, accessing in-group resources requires one to fulfil group’s obligations. In individualist cultures, precedence is given to business consideration over relationships, whereas in collectivist cultures, personal and business relationships are integrated (Hofstede, 1984). 4.5.3 Uncertainty avoidance (UA) for the ethnic groups Asians as a cluster, especially Japanese, score high to medium for UA whereas New Zealand score medium to low (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). Asian migrants who were faced with difficulties in securing mainstream employment have gone into business and assumed greater risks (Basu, 2006; Pio, 2007). They reduce the probability of adverse events occurring through hard work, networking with others and maintaining a low profile despite their wealth (Ray, 1994). They also spread their risk by supporting fellow members, hiring cheap co-ethnic labour and operating in co-ethnic markets (Deakins, Smallbone, Ishaq, Whittam, & Wyper, 2009; Pio, 2007). Frederick and Henry (2004) find that Maori are split in their view of uncertainty avoidance with “46 percent exhibiting strong uncertainty avoidance and 54 percent exhibiting weak uncertainty avoidance” (pp. 125-126). Many are found to be “conservative in their outlook” (NZIER, 2007, pp. 13-14) and they manifest themselves in passivity and risk aversion. Maori also have a higher fear of failure rate than non-
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