O an amiable cohesive group o relative isolation of

Info icon This preview shows pages 12–14. Sign up to view the full content.

o An amiable, cohesive group o Relative isolation of the group from dissenting viewpoints o A directive leader who signals what decision he or she faors - Symptoms o A collective form of dissonance reduction that surfaces As group members try to maintain their positive group feeling When facing a threat (Turner & others, 1992) o Produce a failure to seek and discuss contrary information and alternative possibilities o When a leader promotes an idea and when a group insulates itself from dissenting views Groupthink may produce defective decisions (McCauley, 1989) o Illusion of invulnerability Overestimate their group’s might and right Developed an excessive optimism blinded them to warnings of danger o Unquestioned belief in the group’s morality Overestimate their group’s might and right Assume the inherent morality of their group Ignore ethical and moral issues o Rationalization Closed-minded Discount challenges by collectively justifying their decisions o Stereotyped view of opponents and out-group members Closed-minded Consider their enemies too evil to negotiate with or too weak and unintelligent to defend themselves against the planned initiative o Conformity pressure Suffers from pressures toward uniformity Group members rebuffed those who raised doubts about the group’s assumptions and plans At times not by argument by personal sarcasm o Self-censorship Suffers from pressures toward uniformity Since disagreements were often uncomfortable and the groups seemed in consensus Members withheld or discounted their misgivings o Mindguard Suffers from pressures toward uniformity Some members protect the group from information that would call into question the effectiveness or morality of its decisions o Illusion of unanimity Suffers from pressures toward uniformity
Image of page 12

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Self-censorship and pressure not to puncture the consensus create an illusion of unanimity The apparent consensus confirms the group’s decision - Critiquing groupthink o Friendships need not breed groupthink (Esser, 1998; Mullen & others, 1994) o In a secure, highly cohesive group Committed members will often care enough to voice disagreement (Packer, 2009) o Norms of a cohesive group can favor either Consensus lead to groupthink Critical analysis prevents it (Postmes & others, 2001) - Preventing groupthink o Open leadership cohesive team spirit can improve decisions o Two or more leaders better than one o Be impartial do not endorse any position o Encourage critical evaluation open a group to opposing views o Occasionally subdivide the group then reunite to air difference o Welcome critiques from outside experts and associates o Before implementing call a second chance meeting to air any lingering doubts - Group problem solving o Laughlin and Adamopoulos (1980) Shown the wisdom of groups with various intellectual tasks Most college students miss this question when answering alone But answer correctly (thwarted) after discussion If just two members of a six-person group are initially correct
Image of page 13
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern