Kunitake 289 thus the entrenchment of martial ideals

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expanded.” (Kunitake, 289) Thus the entrenchment of martial ideals into society will then reinforce the family-state ideology instilled through education. Keeping in mind the unequal trade agreements of the nineteenth century, Japan’s goals were international economic and
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47 military preeminence. Thus the system of education in conjunction with the propagation of martial ideals and patriotism, modeled after the Prussian’s, was the societal aspect of the Meiji government’s reformations; reformations aimed at propelling Japan to its goal of international predominance. Second, the substantial Prussian influence enables historians to view the military’s civilian socialization system as an extension of compulsory education of which worked in conjunction with compulsory education to shape the Japanese people. Ultimately, these domestic programs aimed to contrive a society of nationalistically and militaristically educated people, as observed in Prussia, in order to propel Japan to international prominence. On November 3 rd , 1910 Yamagata Aritomo made a speech that evidences this goal. He states that the Japanese must, “fulfill the ideal that all citizens are soldiers. Not only must we repay our obligation to the emperor, but we must also make the nation prosper.” (Smethurst, 2) This excerpt shows how Yamagata Aritomo and the Meiji government perceived a positive correlation between national prosperity and military strength; further it demonstrates the bushido ideal of loyalty, and, militarism and loyalties relationship to national prosperity. Hence, within this context the military’s civilian socialization system and the reservist association are parts of a national, multi- institutional educational apparatus established to create a highly disciplined, obedient and militaristic population. This institutional educational apparatus illuminates the process by which Japan reformed its people from those who once rioted when conscripted to people who celebrated the opportunity to die for the emperor. The evolution of school curriculum in the early years of the twentieth century provides evidence of the Meiji government’s coordinated effort to inculcate militarism and nationalism
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48 into Japanese society. The militaristic training of teachers, their bushido roots, Yamagata Aritomo’s civilian socialization system, and the school curriculum worked concurrently to achieve the Meiji government’s statist goal. The civilian socialization system expanded the culture of militarism beyond the classroom all the while young students were indoctrinated with Confucian family-state ideology. Former samurai, who had been educated to teach in a rigorous and highly militaristic fashion, taught young Japanese school children lessons that indoctrinated bushido and Confucian family state ideology. The majority of teachers had already been partial to martial values, given the prominence of their samurai past, and were further militarized through institutions like the Tokyo Higher Teacher Training School. The classroom environment for young students would
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  • '17
  • On Liberty, Meiji Restoration, Abolition of the han system, Meiji government, Meiji period

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