Biological influence of bodily events and processes

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Biological : influence of bodily events and processes; brain, genes, hormones Learning : effects of environment and experience Cognitive : what goes on in your head Sociocultural : social and cultural factors Psychodynamic : unconscious dynamics in the individual Chapter 2: Methods Hypothesis: - Research Starts with a Hypothesis A specific prediction generated from a wider theory Is it falsifiable? Freud’s Unfalsifiable Ex) females experience penis envy; males experience subconscious castration anxiety A hypothesis must me precise enough; operationally define the variables Operational Definition: Identifies one or more specific, observable events or conditions such that any other researcher can independently measure and/or test for them.
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Research Methods: - Case Study Detailed description of particular individuals Works well to get detailed and rich information Not as easily generalizable; focusing on only one person - Observational Study Systematic observation without direct interference Naturalistic: in the participants’ natural environments Laboratory: in a more controlled ‘lab’ setting Able to gather a lot more data/generalized data than case studies Going to get more natural/typical behavior - Surveys Using questionnaire’s or interviews to gather information about aspects or participants’ behavior Problems include volunteer bias, lack of self-awareness, social desirability bias Good way to get a large amount of data; benefit of anonymity - Psychological Tests or Measures Instruments and procedures used to evaluate aspects of participants WAIS, MMPI, BDI Good tests are standardized, valid, and reliable - Standardization Developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test Must have content validity and criterion validity Must be reliable and be able to obtain reliable information Reliability: the quality of being trustworthy or of performing consistently well; the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate. Validity: the quality of being logically or factually sound; soundness or cogency; the state of being legally or officially binding or acceptable. Correlation: a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Correlational Studies - Looking for a relationship between two phenomena - Variable : anything that can be quantified - Types of Correlations: Positive Correlation: as one variable increases, the other also increases Negative Correlation: as one variable increases, the other decreases - Correlation coefficient (r) shows direction and strength of relationship - An r near 0 means no correlation - Sign indicates positive or negative correlation - As you go further away from 0 in either direction, the relationship is stronger - The strength of the relationship is independent of the direction *correlation does not establish causation
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Experiments: Cause and Effect -
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